Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/104

Click to flip

104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Evaluative
Comprehension
Skills
The third and highest level of comprehension. This level
of comprehension involves not only understanding the
text but also being able to critique it effectively.
Explicit
Instruction
An instructional strategy that emphasizes group
instruction. The instruction offered should include a great
deal of teacher-student interactivity.
Expository Text
Expository text is intended to teach the reader, to explain
and describe, or to convince the reader of a point. Rather
than being centered on a plot or a character, expository
text is oriented around a subject. It contains little or (most
often) no dialogue; its primary purpose is to provide facts
and opinions.
Figurative
Language
A tool employed by authors to communicate via simile or
metaphor rather than strictly literally.
Final Position
The end of a word.
Fluency
Fluency is the ability to read smoothly with good
comprehension. A fluent reader will possess a large sight
word vocabulary, be able to deploy a number of decoding
strategies, and have the ability to read with expression
and with attention to the meaning of punctuation.
Formal
Assessments
A test that must be administered in a particular way under
specific conditions. An example of a formal assessment is
a standardized test.
Frustration level
The reading level at which the student cannot accurately
recognize or comprehend more than seventy percent of
the text.
Graphophonic
Cues
The process of “sounding out” a word. The use of lettersound
correspondence to identify unknown words in a
text.
Guided Reading
Guided reading enables the teacher and a small group of
children to read their way through a book, stopping
frequently to question and discuss the text.
High-Frequency
Words
The words that appear most often in printed materials.
Implicit
Instruction
Teaching that uses nondirective suggestions and
tacit implications in place of explicit direction or
modeling.
Independent
Level
The reading level at which the student can accurately
recognize and comprehend words well enough that no
teacher guidance is required.
Independent
Reading
Reading that is done alone, without assistance from the
teacher or from other learners. Independent reading is crucial to developing reading skills. It advances
familiarity with common word structures, improves
fluency and accuracy, increases vocabulary, broadens
knowledge, enhances comprehension, and motivates the
students to read yet more, both for information and for
pleasure.
Inflectional
Endings
Sounds, which are added to words to indicate tense,
possession, number or comparison.
Inferential
Comprehension
The second level of reading comprehension. At this level
of comprehension, students should be able to draw
conclusions about events or topics within a reading text
that are not explicitly stated by the author.
Informal
Assessments
Measurement tools that can be “sneaked” into classroom
activities and daily routines. Informal assessments can be
used as frequently and spontaneously as necessary
without losing valuable instruction time. Informal
assessments are either unstructured (such as looking at
student writing exercises or learning logs) or structured
(such as filling out a phonemic awareness or concepts of
print checklist).
Informal
Reading
Inventory (IRI)
An assessment tool, which presents a student with reading
passages and test, their comprehension with questions
about the texts just read. The IRI is used to gauge a
student’s independent, instructional, and frustration
reading levels.
Initial Position
The first part of a word.
Instructional
level
The reading level at which a student recognizes and
comprehends words well enough to avoid frustration but
still requires some guidance or assistance from the
teacher.
Irregular Sight
Words
Common words that cannot be sounded out, such as “of”
or “would.”
Language
Experience
Approach (LEA)
The Language Experience Approach joins reading and
writing instruction. Students use their own experiences
and their own words to develop their reading, writing, and speaking abilities.
Learning Logs
Learning logs are a technique that teachers use to help
students integrate course content, comprehension
strategies, and personal feelings. The principle behind
learning logs is that the very act of writing can be
educational. Students may make entries in their logs
during the last few minutes of class, the first few minutes
or class, or immediately after reading a text.
Letter-Sound
Correspondence
The idea that each letter or group of letters within a word
has a corresponding sound.
Listening
Comprehension
Listening comprehension refers to the level at which
students can understand texts that are read aloud to them.
Listening comprehension is generally described by a
grade level; for example, a student might be said to have
“third-grade listening comprehension.”
Literal
Comprehension
Skills
The first and most basic level of reading comprehension.
Students at this level of comprehension can understand
what the literal text, but cannot draw conclusions or
effectively critique the text.
Literary
Analysis
An argument or point of view about a reading text.
Literary Genres
Categories of literature that share a central theme.
Examples of literary genres include mysteries, science
fiction, and romance.
Literary
Response
A student’s expression of feelings about a literary text.
Mapping
Story mapping is a technique in which students relate the
main incidents of a text they have read.
Medial Position
The middle portion of a word.
Metacognition
A student’s reflection on his or her own thought
processes. Students use metacognition to critique their
text decoding and reading comprehension strategies.
Mood
The emotional environment of a literary work.
Morpheme
The smallest unit of language that has meaning. For
example, in the word “stomping,” both “stomp” and “-
ing” are morphemes.
Morphology
The study of word structure. Morphology encompasses
the derivation of words, the use of inflections, and the
creation of compound words.
Narrative Text
Narrative text is intended to amuse the reader, to relate a
story, or to provide an aesthetic experience. It can be
based on life experiences and is often person-oriented
(although it may also be plot or idea oriented). Narrative
text employs dialogue and most often uses language that
is familiar to the reader. It is organized by a story
grammar.
Note Taking
Writing down key points made by a reading text. Note
taking is an important comprehension strategy.
Onset
An onset is the part of the word or syllable that is
followed by a vowel. For example, in the word “man,”
the onset is “m.”
Open Syllable
A syllable that does not end in a consonant sound but
rather in a vowel sound. For example, in the word
“jumbo,” the second syllable is an open syllable.
Orthography
The study of spelling and standard spelling patterns.
Outlining
Making a hierarchical, chronological list of key points
made by a reading text. Outlining is an important
comprehension strategy.
Phoneme
The smallest sound unit in written or oral language. A
phoneme may be a letter or a group of letters.
Phonics
Systematic, explicit phonics refers to a program in which
letter-sound correspondences (for both letters and groups
of letters) are taught in a gradual progression from basic
to complex.
Predictions
The ability to guess what a text might say or what words
it might use given its subject.
Prefix
An affix that is attached to the beginning of a base or root word. For example, the prefix “pre-“ may be added to the word “school” to form the word “preschool.”
Prephonetic
An understanding that language can be represented on
paper, but not that letters correspond to certain sounds.
Prior
Knowledge
See Background Knowledge.
Proficient
Reader
A reader who can read most texts, including newspapers,
magazines, and chapter books.
Proofreading
The process of examining a piece of writing for spelling,
punctuation, grammatical, or word-choice errors.
R-controlled
A vowel sound, such as the “o” in “sailor,” that is neither
log nor short.
Reading Logs
A student’s written response to classroom texts.
Reading Rate
The speed at which a reader can comprehend a text.
Rereading
Reading a text multiple times. This is a strategy that can
increase reading fluency.
Rhyming Words
Words with a different onset but with the same or similar
rimes, such as “meat” and “seat.”
Rime
An onset is the part of the word or syllable that includes
the vowel and any consonants that may follow the vowel.
Root Words
See Base Words.
Scaffolding
Scaffolding involves a student partnering with a
more advanced peer or with a teacher or adult teaching
assistant. The partner creates “scaffolds” on which
comprehension can be built by the use of learning
activities designed to model useful strategies or provide
important information. As the student progresses,
scaffolds can be removed until he or she is reading
independently at grade level.
Schemata
The information that a reader already knows about a
subject. As he or she learns more about that subject, facts
and opinions can be added to the schemata. Schemata
about one subject are often mentally cross-referenced
with other subjects.
Segmentation
The ability to break a word into separate phonemes.
Self-Correction
Strategies
Techniques used to understand a misread or unknown
word.
Self monitoring
The ability of students to examine their own reading
comprehension and word identification strategies and
modify these strategies for greater success.
Semantic Cues
The use of knowledge about the subject of a written text
and words associated with that subject to identify an
unknown word within the text.
Semiphonetic
See Prephonetic.
Sight words or
sight vocabulary
Words that a reader can identify “on sight”; words that a
reader knows immediately without working to identify
them.
S.Q.3R
A teaching strategy to improve reading comprehension.
The steps of SQ3R include Surveying, Questioning,
Reading, Reciting, and Reviewing.
S.S.R
SSR, or “Sustained Silent Reading,” involves having
students selecting books that they want to read and giving
them time (usually no more than twenty minutes) during
the school day to read them. The teacher may use this
time to model independent reading by choosing her own
book.
Story Map/Frame
A story map is a graphic presentation of major plot points
and themes from a story. This learning tool improves
reading comprehension and teaches students to be aware
of story structure.
Structural
Analysis
The practice of breaking a word into parts and defining
those parts as a means of understanding the entire word.
Structures of
Expository Text
There are seven basic structures of expository text:
definition, description, process, classification,
comparison, analysis, and persuasion.
Study Skills
The skills required to learn curriculum information, such
as the use of reference materials.
Substitution
The replacement of one phoneme in a word with another
phoneme. For example, substitution “c” for “r” in “rat”
forms the word “cat.”
Suffix
An affix attached after a base word or root, such as y in sleepy.
Syllabication
The breaking up of a word into one or more syllables.
Syllables
A phoneme or group of phonemes that form one of the
sound units of a word.
Syntactic Cues
Hints based on syntax that help a reader decode and
comprehend a text.
Systematic
Instruction
An instructional plan, such as a yearlong lesson plan, that
moves from simple concepts to more complex ones. For
example, a systematic instruction plan for teaching lettersound
correspondence might begin with a simple
recitation of the alphabet and end with lessons on the
various sounds made by vowels.
Theme
The main idea of a reading text.
Think Aloud
A teaching strategy in which the teacher recites aloud
thought processes that a proficient reader might use when
reading or writing.
Tracking of Print
The ability to read along with a text as someone else
reads aloud. Tracking of Print requires an understanding
of left-to-right progression.
Transitional
Spelling
In transitional spelling, students use morphological and
visual information to determine the spelling of the word
instead of relying solely upon phonetic spelling. They
may include all of a word’s letters, but in the wrong
order. They may use multiple spellings for the same
sound without understanding why the sound is spelled
differently in different words. Their percentage of
correctly spelled words will be high.
Vowel Digraphs
The short vowel sounds are /a/ as in at; /e/ in elf; /i/ in it;
/o/ in odd; /u/ in up.
Word Families
Words that have some of the same combinations of letter
combinations in them.
Word
Identification
The ability to identify a word in a reading text, either by
sounding it out, by recognizing it on sight, or by using
syntactic or semantic cues.
Word
Recognition
See Word Identification.
Consonant cluster
A group or sequence of consonants that appear
together in a syllable without a vowel between
them.
Vowel
generalization
The following generalizations govern vowel
pronunciation:
1. A single vowel followed by a consonant in a
word or syllable usually has the short sound (such
as can or cancel).
2. A single vowel that concludes a word or syllable
usually has the long sound (such as me, ti-ger, and
lo-co-mo-tive).
3. In the vowel digraphs oa,ea,ee, ai, and ay, the
first vowel is usually long and the second is silent
(such as coat, reap, bead, wait, and play). The
digraphs oo, au, and ew form a single sound tht is
not the long sound of the first vowel (such as food,
good, haul, and few).
4. In words containing two vowels, one of which is
final e, the final e is usually silent and the
preceding vowel is long.
5. Single vowels followed by r usually result in a
blended sound (such as fir, car, burn, and fur). The
vowel a followed by l or w usually results in a
blended sound (such as yawn, tall, claw, awful).
Short vowel
The short vowel sounds are /a/ as in at; /e/ in elf; /i/
in it; /o/ in odd; /u/ in up.
Long vowel
The long vowel sounds are A as in game, E as in
Pete, I as in pine, O as in home, U as in cute. Long
vowels can also be spelled with two vowels, as in
the following words: “sail,” “bay,” “meet,” “seal,”
“lie,” “moan.”
Syllable patterns
Syllable patterns are common consonant vowel
patterns that appear frequently in English, such as
CVC, CVVC, CVCe, CCVCC, etc.
Medial Position
The middle portion of a word.
Metacognition
A student’s reflection on his or her own thought
processes. Students use metacognition to critique their
text decoding and reading comprehension strategies.
Mood
The emotional environment of a literary work.
Morpheme
The smallest unit of language that has meaning. For
example, in the word “stomping,” both “stomp” and “-
ing” are morphemes.
Morphology
The study of word structure. Morphology encompasses
the derivation of words, the use of inflections, and the
creation of compound words.
Narrative Text
Narrative text is intended to amuse the reader, to relate a
story, or to provide an aesthetic experience. It can be
based on life experiences and is often person-oriented
(although it may also be plot or idea oriented). Narrative
text employs dialogue and most often uses language that
is familiar to the reader. It is organized by a story
grammar.
Note Taking
Writing down key points made by a reading text. Note
taking is an important comprehension strategy.
Onset
An onset is the part of the word or syllable that is
followed by a vowel. For example, in the word “man,”
the onset is “m.”
Open Syllable
A syllable that does not end in a consonant sound but
rather in a vowel sound. For example, in the word
“jumbo,” the second syllable is an open syllable.
Orthography
The study of spelling and standard spelling patterns.
Outlining
Making a hierarchical, chronological list of key points
made by a reading text. Outlining is an important
comprehension strategy.
Phoneme
The smallest sound unit in written or oral language. A
phoneme may be a letter or a group of letters.
Phonics
Systematic, explicit phonics refers to a program in which
letter-sound correspondences (for both letters and groups
of letters) are taught in a gradual progression from basic
to complex.
Predictions
The ability to guess what a text might say or what words
it might use given its subject.
Prefix
An affix that is attached to the beginning of a base or root word. For example, the prefix “pre-“ may be added to the word “school” to form the word “preschool.”