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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Advanced
organizer
The presentation of relevant learning activities or subject
information to students before reading begins.
Affixes
A morpheme attached to a base word (also called root
word) that changes the meaning of the base or its
function.
Alphabetic
Principle
The systematic use of alphabet letters to represent speech
sounds or phonemes in a language
Assessment
A means for measuring a student’s progress. Assessments
should be varied and ongoing.
Auditory
discrimination
The ability to tell the difference between one sound and
another sound. Auditory discrimination is very important
for developing phonemic awareness.
Background
Knowledge
The knowledge that students already possess. Students
who possess background knowledge in the subject of a
reading text are more likely to read that text fluently and
with comprehension.
Base Word
The word to which affixes are attached. A base word is
also called a root word.
Big books
Large “child-friendly” volumes that help children learn
concepts of print and enjoy positive reading experiences.
Blending
The ability to take separate sounds and blend them into a
single word or syllable.
Cloze test
A “fill-in-the-blank” assessment tool often used to test
reading comprehension.
Comprehension
The process of constructing meaning
Comprehension
Strategies
The techniques that students can use to better understand
reading texts. These techniques may include note taking,
outlining, self-monitoring, rereading, summarizing, story
mapping, and the use of learning logs.
Concepts About
Print
An understanding of the ways in which letters, words, and
sentences are represented on the page. The most basic
“concept of print” is the idea that oral language can be presented in a print format.
Consonant
Blend
Two or three consonants blended together. The sound that
this blend makes is the sound of the consonants blended
together.
Consonant
Digraph
A pair of consonants that makes a single sound that is
different from each individual letter sound.
Content-Area
Literacy
The ability to learn through reading
Context Clue
The use of information surrounding an unknown word or
group of words to identify the unknown word. Important
context information may include syntax, the meanings of
the surrounding words, available pictures or photographs,
or even typography.
Conventional
Spelling
Students who have mastered conventional spelling will
follow the essential conventions of English spelling. In
addition, they will understand how to apply prefixes and
suffixes, contractions, plurals, and verb markers to words.
They will show an understanding of compound words,
homophones, and homographs. Their use of silent
consonants, silent vowels, and doubled consonants will
improve. They will recognize when a word is spelled
wrong and may consider alternate spellings for the same
or similar sounds. They will apply irregular spelling
patterns where appropriate. Their percentage of correctly
spelled words is high.
Curriculum-
Based
Assessment
The use of measurement tools and tests that are directly
related to the current classroom curriculum.
Decoding
Analyzing words by identifying sound units
Deletion
The removal of a sound or phoneme from a word. Sound
deletion requires manipulation of phonemes in words and
is considered to be more difficult than other types of
phoneme awareness. Sound deletion generally involves
only initial or final sounds in words.
Diagnosis
The identification of a specific learning problem or
stumbling block.
Diagnostic
Teaching
The use of assessments about student problems and
progress to design lesson plans and organize reading
instruction.
Diagnostic Test
An assessment designed to measure a student’s academic
strengths and weaknesses.
Diphthong
A gliding vowel sound normally represented by two
adjacent vowels.
Direct
instruction
An instructional strategy that includes modeling reading,
writing, and speaking skills, the use of guided reading,
and the encouragement of independent reading and writing.
Directed
listening
thinking activity
(DLTA)
DLTA both assesses and instructs students. Listening,
predicting, and confirming one’s predictions are
emphasized.
Directionality
The ability to process words in a text in the correct order.
Directionality includes both left-to-right word progression
and the return sweep (the return to the beginning of the
next line when one line is completed).
Emergent
Literacy
The awakening of a student’s reading ability. Emergent
readers have well developed oral language skills,
understand print concepts, and are phonemically aware.
Etymology
The study of the origins and histories of words.