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21 Cards in this Set

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Herek (2000)
Sexual Prejudice
Violence against gays and lesbians
Sexual prejudice = any (-) attitude based solely on sexual orientation (including against heterosexuals)

Heterosexism - DANGEROUS!
Prejudice against any person or group who is not heterosexual

Violence Against Gays/Lesbians - result of a combo of individual and cultural racism
Minority Stress Model:
There are 3 proximal causes of Mental Health problems in gays, lesbians, bisexuals
1. internalized homophobia
2. expectation of rejection
3. concealment of sexual identity
Meyer (lemon w/ 3 seeds) - 3 Internalized Causes of Psychopathology

3 Reasons Minorities view themselves as Lemons
3 seeds
Cultural Paranoia

Whose theory?
Believe it, or Not!
Funtional Paranoia
Whose Theory?
Believe it or Not
Ridley's 4 Types of Paranoia

What are the 2 types of Paranoia?

What are the four categories and does the race of the tx matter? If so, what race should the tx be?
2 kinds of Paranoia are:
Functional (Clinical) and Cultural
They can be low or high on each

INTERCULTURAL NONPARANOIAC (no cultural or functional paranoia), tx race doesn't matter

Functional Paranoia (Clinical)
but NO Cultural Paranoia
Race doesn't matter - competence in working w/ paranoia does!

(Functional and Cultural Paranoia)
Refer to Black Tx. Tx. should then try to distinguish between aspects of cultural paranoia and funcitonal paranoia within the context of society.

Stay w/ White tx. and have tx. confront the meaning of the client's cultural paranoia by bringing his/her feelings into conscious awareness and help the client clarify when it is appropriate or inappropriate to self-disclose.
Functional Paranoia is dysfunctional, believe it or not! Functional = Clinical paranoia

(Ripley's believe it or not!)
What should the race of the therapist be if the client is:

Functional Nonparanoiac
Race Doesn't really matter, just use most compentant tx available for someone who is clinically paranoid
Cross's REVISED Black Racial Identity Dev. Model
5! Stages
1. Pre-encounter (White Tx)
a. internalized racism OR
b. low salience for race
2. Encounter (Af. Am. Tx)
3. Immersion (AA Tx.)/ Emersion
4. Internalization (Tx. Race may not matter)
5. Internalization Commitment
a. pro-Black, non-racist (Black Nationalist)
b. Biculturist Identity (Integrate Black cultural ID w/ White Cultural ID)
c. Multicultural Identity
1. Racist
2. Inclusive
Picture a Cross w/ E marked East


Then think Pee! I.E. I (have to pee!) and Michael Exclaiming IC (IC - in mock surprise

PeE IeI Ic
Cross has four points +
PeEIeI, with the final point next to it being IC!

I + E (East)

Pee IE I (Pee! i.e. I have to pee!)


Before his encounter with racism (Pre-encounter), Alex Cross is blissfully unaware of a problem. He actually doesn't see race as much of an issue and assimilates himself into the White majority culture. When his grandmother is murdered in a racially-motivated crime, Cross enoucnters racism personally and becomes immersed in the problem. During this time, he begins to idealize Blacks and hate Whites, kicking himself for his earlier lack of awareness. After awhile, his intense emotions begin to fade and he begins to really internalize a Black Identity. Eventually he emerges (emersion) and becomes a Black Naitonalistst and works hard to erradicate racism. He befriends Bicultural Blacks, (BB - babies are always good) who integrate their Black and White Identities. He thinks he'd like the multiculturalists and he does like the ones who are inclusive. However, others are racist and he does not enjoy thier company.
What should the race of the therapist be if the client is:

Healthy Cultural Paranoiac
African American says one source.

The other source (Testmaster practice Test) says the healthy cultural paranoiac should stay w/ a White tx. who should confront the meaning of the client's cultural paranoia by bringing his/her feelings into conscious awareness and help the client clarify when it is appropriate or inappropriate to self-disclose.
What should the race of the therapist be if the client is:

Interculural NonParanoiac
Doesn't matter, b/c there is no cultural or functional (clinical) paranoia
Atkinson & Sue
Racial/Cultural Minority Identity Development Model
Sue (Brenner) believes that all minorities must go through 5 stages b/c they have all been oppressed.

The 5 stages are:
1. Conformity (White Tx)
2. Dissonance (Black Tx)
3. Rejection/Immersion (Black Tx)
4. Introspection (Black Tx!!!)
5. Integrative Awareness (Either, whoever is more qualified)
"Black" has 5 letters and it is a model of Black and other Racial Identity Development


Sue Brenner grew up conforming. then after some Dissonance, she Rejected the majority and became immersed in the minority. After much Introspection, she developed an Integrated Awareness of herself and society.
What should the race of the therapist be if the client is:

Confluent Paranoiac
Af. Am. The Tx. should try to distinguish between cultural aspects of the paranoia and functional aspects and treat accordingly.

Personally, I'd try w/ an Af. Am Tx.
Atkinson & Sue's Conformity Stage
reject own minority culture
accept Majority culture and want treatment from a White Tx.
Atkinson & Sue's

Dissonance Stage
1. What are its characteristics?
2. Does race of therpist matter, and if so, what race should s/he be?
conflict between own and other's positive and negative attitudes about minorities

Black Tx
Rejection / Immersion
1. Whose Theory
2. What are Characteristics
3. What should the therapists' race be?
1. Atkinson & Sue

2. Characteristics
Rejects majority culture and becomes immersed in seeing all problems minorities face as the result of oppression (like Survivors)

3. Black Tx
Atkinson & Sue

Black (5 letters, 5 Stages)

Chose Theory?
Atkinson and Sue

2. What are the Characteristics?
Uncertain about whether all minorities problems are really due to oppression and whether Whites are all bad.

Feels conflict between that and autonomy

Does race of Tx. matter and if so, what should it be?
Black TX!!!!
Wouldn't expect Tx. choice to be own minority group based on the name of the stage.
Helms' Interaction Model of Counseling
Tx needs to be at the same, or preferably a more advanced stage of Racial Identity Development than the client.

4 kinds of Tx - Ct. matches:
1. Parallel Interaction (same level)
a. work well together
b. BUT can lead to stagnation

2. Progressive Interaction - ideal! Tx. is one stage ahead of Ct.

3. Regressive Interaction
a. Lots of Conflict and Early Termination
b. b/c Ct. is at least one stage (and maybe more) ahead of Tx. in terms of level of Racial Identity Development.

4. Crossed Interaction
a. Confrontational and Contentious!
b. Ct. and TX are at opposite ends of the spectrum (CT much more advanced)
Think about what lines would look like:

Parallel: Work well together, but stagnate (no progress!)


Regressive - conflict and early termination

* .
* .
. *
. *

Crossed -> VERY Cross people! Tons of conflict
Internalized Awareness
1. Part of whose Theory?
2. Characteristics of Stage?
3. Tx Race?
1. Who? Sue and Atkinson

2. Characteristics of Stage:
Self-fulfillment, works to eliminate racism, multicultural perspective.

3. Tx. Race?
Re tx, sees other characteristics as more important than race.
Sue and Atkinson
theory re: Black and other minority ID dev ("Black" 5 letters, therefore 5 stages)

For tx race, think of vertical list of best tx race for each of the stages.
According to Helms, which type of Tx/Ct. match is most likely to lead to early termination?
Regressive Interaction
According to Helms, which type of Tx. Ct. match is most likely to lead to stagnation
According to Helms, which type of Tx./Ct. match is most productive and best for the client
Accoding to Helm's Interaction Model of Counseling, which type of Tx/Ct match is the most likely to be VERY Contentious and Ugly
Crossed Interaction
In a crossed interaction people are most likely to be cross with each other!