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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a mistelle?
Grape must is fortified prior to fermentation. Also known as vin de liquer
When was the Douro first demarcated?
What is the beneficio authorization?
The maximum amount of wine that may be fortified granted by the IVDP
What is the scoring system of a beneficio authorization?
Max 2361 points
Matrix of 12 factors
> 1200 - A
1200 to 1001 - B
1000 to 801 - C
800 to 601 - D
600 to 401 - E
400 to 201 - F
What are the soil and climate factors in a beneficio authorization?
Rough matter
What are the vine factors in the beneficio?
Type of vine
Planting density
Training system
Vine age
What are the maximum yields for red grapes in Port? White grapes?
55 hl/ha
65 hl/ha
What are the preferred red grapes in Port?
Touriga Nacional
Touriga Francesa
Tinta Roriz
Tinta Cao
Tinta Barroca
Tinta Amarela
Tinta Francisca
Mourisco Tinto
What percentage must be preferred grapes in Port?
What are the preferred white grapes in Port?
Malavasia Fina
Esgana Cao
What is Vinhos ao Alta?
Vertical row planting system in Portugal
Are grapes destemmed in Port?
Yes, fully or partially
What are the open granite troughs where Port is crushed?
What is a quinta?
A Port house
What is an autovinifier?
An Algerian technology which uses the pressure of the gas released during fermentation to pump over the wine
How long is Port fermentation?
2-3 days
What is Beneficio? When does it occur?
Fortification of wine with spirit after about 1/3 of sugar content has been fortified into alcohol
What is aguardente?
77% abv neutral grain spirit, means "burning water"
What is the final ABV level in port?
What is the typical ratio of Port to aguardente?
What is a pipe?
Traditional barrel used for aging and shipping port. Douro Valley is 550L while Vila Nova de Gaia is 620L. Size to ship Port is 534.24
What are the two major Port styles?
Ruby and Tawny
What is Ruby Port?
Often aged in bulk (wood, cement, stainless) for 2-3 years prior to bottling, no vintage date
What is Ruby Reserve Port?
AKA Premium Ruby (replaced the term Vintage Character)
What is Villa Nova de Gaia?
A suburb of Oporto, traditionally where Port was aged (ceased to be mandatory in 1986)
What is Vintage Port?
1-3% of production
Average declaration of 3 per decade
Must be authorized by IVDP
Aged in cask before being bottled by July 30 of 3rd year after harvest
What is Single Quinta Vintage Port?
Vintage port from one estate's harvest
Often happens when a Port house cannot confidently declare a vintage
What is LBV Port?
Spends 4-6 years in cask prior to bottling
Always of a single vintage but quality varies
Filtered prior to bottling and will not require decanting
Superior styles are not filtered and will improve with bottle age (Envelhecido em Garrafa)
What is Tawny Port?
Without an indication of age, it means the wine does not undergo extensive cask aging
What is Reserve Tawny?
Ages for seven years prior to bottling
Blended from several vintages
Will not improve with additional bottle age
What is Tawny with Indication of Age?
May be labeled 10, 20, 30 or 40
Get an oxidative, rancio state
Uses high quality fruit and matured in seasoned wood
Racked annually, often topped off with young wine
Age on label isn't actually an indication of age
What is a Colheita Tawny?
Vintage dated port that spends minimum of 7 years in cask
What are the sub-regions of Douro/Porto DOP?
Baixa Corgo
Cima Corgo
Douro Superior
What are the characteristics for 2007 Port?
98 WS
Structured and refined, good balance with ripe fruit and polished tannins
What are the characteristics for 2003 Port?
98 WS
Balanced with fresh fruit and aromatics, powerful tannins
What are the characteristics for 2000 Port?
97 WS
Aromatic, rich and ripe, serious structure
What are the characteristics for 1997 Port?
96 WS
Lovely aromas, firm tannin backbone and ripe fruit
What are the characteristics for 1995 Port?
92 WS
Extremely fruit, well-structured with fine tannins
What are the characteristics for 1994 Port?
99 WS
Classic vintage with superlative structure, fabulous harmony
What are the characteristics of 1992 Port?
94 WS
Concentrated, tannic and fruity
What are the characteristics for 1991 Port?
93 WS
Racy, harmonious, rich
What is the island of Madeira?
Subtropical volcanic island 625 off the coast of Portugal
What is torna viagem?
"Round trip" refers to aging Madeira on ships as ballast
What is Madeira DOP?
Islands of Madeira and Porto Santo that produces Madeira wine
What are the terroir of Madeira?
Subtropical maritime climate
Steep , nearly vertical, slopes with volcanic soils enriched by potash
What are poios?
Walls of basalt stone that surround terraces in Madeira
What is latada?
Low training trellises in Maderia's unique pergola system
What are levadas?
Series of canals on Maderia that make agriculture possible
What are the three types of companies involved in Madeira production?
Production companies
Shipping companies
Partidistas, who store wine and sell at maturity
What are the four noble grapes of Madeira?
Sercial (Esgana Cao)
Verdelho (Gouveio)
Boal (Bual, Malvasia Fina)
Malmsey (Malvasia Candida)
What are the lesser known grapes in Madeira?
Terrantez (Folgaso)
Bastardo (Trousseau)
Tinta Negra Mole (Pinot Noir x Grenache)
What is special about the Tinta Negra Mole?
Accounts for 80-85% of Madeira's production
Nicknamed "Whore of Madeira" when it arrived after phylloxera along with American hybrid grapes
Non-varietal bottlings often have high proportion
What is the sweetness level in Madeira, from sweetest to dryest?
What types of Madeira are made with Terrantez?
Both sweet and dry styles
How are Sercial and Verdelho made?
Harvested last and separated from skins prior to fermentation
How are Bual and Malmsey are made?
Harvested first and undergoes a short fermentation on skins
How is fortification done in Madeira?
95% abv grape spirit is used
Malmsey only ferments a few hours before mutage
Dry Maderia is fortified afterwards
What is the minimum abv in Madeira?
What two processes are used in Maderia?
Describe the Estufagem process?
Heating in estufa (stainless steel vats) to 113-122 for three months
Afterwards a rest (estagio) for min 90 days for cask aging
May not be released until 2 years after harvest
Cheaper wines are fortified after estufagem process
What are armazens de calor?
More delicate version of estufagem process where roomes are warmed by nearby tanks or steam pipes
Utilizes lower temperature for longer periods of time
What is the canteiro method?
Wiens are cask aged for two years in lodge attics, warmed by the sun
May be bottled at minimum of three years of age
Best are in cask for up to 20 years before transferred to glass demijohns for long-term storage
May need to be re-fortified before bottling
Describe Sercial?
Driest Maderia
High acid with youthful citrus notes
Describe Verdelho?
Medium dry wine with high acid and a smoky, honeyed character
Describe Bual?
Medium sweet, rich style of wine
Acid still dominates the finish
Highly aromatic, caramel, roasted nut, coffee notes
Tends to be darkest
Describe Malmsey?
Sweetest and softest in style
Toffee, vanilla and marmalade
What is Rainwater?
Madeira style popular in the US
Madeira typically made with Tinta Negra Mole
Min 3 years old
Medium dry and light in style
What is Seleccionado?
Madeira often labeled Finest, Choice or Select
Blended wine 3-5 years in age, mostly from Tinta Negra Mole and heated in estufagem
What is Reserve (Reserva) Madeira?
Blend aged 5-10 years old
What is Special Reserve (Riserva Especial) Madeira?
Blend aged 10-15 years old
Often made of a single noble varietal, heated by canteiro method
What is Extra Reserve Madeira?
Blend aged 15-20 years old
Often made of a single noble varietal, heated by canteiro method
What is 20/30/40 year old Madeira?
Blended Madeiras where the age indicated is the minimum age of the blend
What is Solera Madeira?
Madeira wines produced by fractional blended and canteiro method
No longer allowed by the EU but still available on the island
What is Colheita Madeira?
Vintage Madeira (85% from stated vintage) aged minimum five years priot to bottling
Blend or a single varietal
What is Harvest Madeira?
Single vintage Maderia aged 5-10 years
What is Frasqueira (Garrafeira) Madeira?
Vintage Madeira aged minimum 20 years in cask
May be single varietal or blend
Minimum 85% of vintage requirement means often topped up with younger wines
Produced by canteiro method
Epitome of Madeira
What is Vinho da Roda/Torno/Volta Madeira?
Wines that went around the equator
What is Sherry?
Fortified wine from Andalucia on the southern coast of Spain
When did Sherry get its Consejo Regulador?
Describe the geography of Sherry
Located in the coastal province of Cadiz, bordered by the Guadalquivir River in the NW and town of Chiclana de la Fronera in the SE
What are the three major towns of Sherry?
Jerez de la Frontera
El Puerto de Santa Maria
Sanlucar de Barrameda
What are Sherry's two DO zones? How are they different?
Manzanilla-Sanlucar de Barrameda
Almost identical, but the latter must be aged in Sanlucar de Barrameda
What are the levante and poniente?
Levante - Hot, dry wind that blows from the east and cooks grapes on the vine
Poniente - Humid Atlantic wind that promotes the growth of flor
What are the soil types in Sherry?
What is Albariza?
Chalky, porous limestone rich soil of white color which produces the best Sherry
Moisture retentive and friable soil structure
What is Barros?
Soil in Sherry with higher proportion of clay and prominent in low-lying valleys
What are Arenas?
Sandy soils in Sherry common in coastal areas
What are the approved grapes in Sherry?
Palomino (Listan)
Pedro Ximenez (PX)
Moscatel (Muscat of Alexandria)
What is the most widely used grape in Sherry?
Palomino, which has approx 95% of acreage
What are the two sub-varieties of Palomino?
Palomino Fino (higher yields and disease resistance)
Palomino de Jerez
What are Moscatel and Pedro Ximenez used for in Sherry? How are they prepared?
Typically used as sweeteners
Typically dried on esparto grass mats for 1-3 weeks
What is vara y pulgar?
Training system in Jerez where growers prune alternate spurs each year
How are grapes traditionally crushed in Sherry?
With pisadores (laborers) wearing zapatos de pisar (cowhide boots with angled nails the soles)
What are the maximum yield from Sherry pressing?
72.5 L / 100 kg
Any extra is used for non-classified wines or distillate
What are the three different quality levels for Sherry pressings?
Primera yema
Segunda yema
Mosto presna
What is yeso?
Plaster, typically added to Sherry grapes prior to pressing which aided clarification and, when combined with cream of tartar, produces tartaric acid
What is desfangado?
Racking, used to clarify Sherry must before fermentation begins
What is the difference between classical Sherry fermentation and current fermentation?
Used to be fermented in new 600 L American oak
Now done in 50,000 L stainless steel
What are the two phases of Sherry fermetnation?
Tumultous - hot and vigorous initial phase lasting up to a week
Lenta - Slow fermentation
What are the two major styles of sherry?
Biological and oxidative
What is a palo mark?
Vertical slash marked on a Sherry tank
Fortified to 15-15.5%
Becomes Fino or Manzanilla
What is a gordura mark?
Circular mark on a Sherry tank
Fortified to 17-18%
Becomes Oloroso
What is mitad y mitad?
A mixture of grape spirit and mature sherry used to fortify the wine
Prevents shocking the young wine
What are the major biological styles of Sherry?
Fino and Manzanilla
What are the major styles of oxidative Sherry?
What is flor del fino?
The yeast that forms on top of biological sherries
Metabolizes glycerin, alcohol and volatile acids in the wine
Prevents oxidation
Grows in spring and fall
What are the pre-requisites for flor development?
Absence of fermentable sugars
15-15.5% abv
Temp of 60-70F
What types of soil are used for biological aging? Oxidative aging? And what types of press are being used for in each style?
Albariza (also uses primera yema)
Barros soils (also uses segunga yema)
What is Sobretablas?
A period of 6-12 months during which a biological sherry under flor will be moved to used 600L American oak and classified for a second time
What are the types of Sobretablas classifications?
Palma Cortada
Palo Cortado
Dos Rayas
What is Palma?
Fino sherry where the flor has flourished
What is Palma Cortada?
A robust fino (may emerge as Amontillado)
What is Palo Cordato?
A rarity; although the flor is present, the richness of of the wine makes the cellarmaster redirect fortify it to kill the flor and make an oxidative style
What is Raya?
Sherry where flor growth is anemic of the yeast dies. Fortified to 17-18% and becomes an Oloroso
What is Dos Rayas?
Wine's flor has disappeared, but character is rough and coarse
Blended and sweetened for lower quality Sherry or made into Sherry vinegar
What happens after Sobretablas?
Wine is either aged three years or put into solera
What are the levels of a solera called?
For every X of wine drawn from a solera, Y mist remain?
1 L
3 L
What is an Amontillado?
A fino sherry that has lost its flor as it matures and begins to age oxidatively
What are generoso Sherries?
Completely dry cherries
Palo Cortado
What are the generoso classifications for Sanlucar de Barrameda?
Manzanilla Fina
Manzanilla Pasada
Manzanilla Olorosa
What is Manzanilla Fina?
Similar in style to FIno, made in Sanlucar de Barrameda
Grapes harvested a week early, resulting in lower alcohol
Moves through a solera more quickly than a standard fino
What is Manzanilla Pasada?
Loses flor like Fino-Amontillado wines and begins to show some oxidative characteristics
Made in Sanlucar de Barrameda
What is the process of assembling a Sherry blend and sweetening it called? What are the requirements?
Base wines entering must be 17.5% abv
What are the sweetening agents available for cabeceo?
Dulce pasa - mistela from sunned Palomino
Dulce de alimbar - blend of invert sugar and Fino
What is vino de color?
A non-alcoholic blend of boiled, reduced syrup and fresh must
Used to color a cabeceo
What are the levels of reduction for vino de color?
Sancocho - reduced to 1/3
Arrope - reduced to 1/5
What are the types of Generoso Liqueur made from cabeceo?
Pale cream
What is Pale Cream Sherry?
Sweet Sherry made from Fino
What is Cream Sherry?
Sweet Sherry made from Oloroso
What is Dry Sherry?
Paler style of sherry that contains a fair amount of sweetness
What is Medium Sherry?
Rich amber sweet Sherry which may include Amontillado in the blend
Can have traditional labeling terms such as "Golden, "Milk," or "Brown"
What is Vino Dulce Natural in Sherry?
Wines made from sunned Moscatel or PX
Misleading because wines are fortified after partial fermentation
180-500 g/L
What are two designations for Sherry Wines of Certified Age? When were they created?
VOS - Vinum Optimum Signatum
VORS - Vinum Optimum Rare Signatum
What are the requirements for VOS Sherry?
Solera wines with average age over 20 years
For every L withdrawn, 20 L must remain
What are the requirements for VORS Sherry?
Solera wines with average age over 30 years
For every L withdrawn, 30 L must remain
What Sherries are eligible for VOS and VORS?
Palo Cortado
Pedro Ximenez
Does VOS and VORS apply to an entire Solera?
No, only a single lot of drawn wine
What certifications of age can a Consejo Regulador make on a Solera?
Approve the use of 12 or 15 years on a lable
What is Marsala?
Fortified wine from Sicily
When was Marsala first manufactured? Who made it?
1773 by the English Port and Sherry merchant John Woodhouse
What can be used to sweeten and color Marsala?
Mosto cotto
Sifone (mistell produced by fortifying unfermented must of overripe grapes)
When is Marsala fortified?
Before or during fermentation
What are the styles of Marsala DOC?
What grapes go into Ambra and Oro Marsala?
Inzolia (Ansoinca)
What is special about Ambra Marsala?
Lower quality and only style that permits conica (adding mosto cotto)
What are the grapes of Rubino Marsala? Can white grapes be used?
Calabrese (Nero d'Avola)
Nerello Mascalese

Yes, up to 30%
What are the sweetness levels of Marsala?
Secco - max 40 g/L
Semisecco - 40-100 g/L
Dolce - min 100 g/L
What are the aging levels of Marsala?
Fine - 1 year
Superiore - 2 years
Superiore Riserva - 4 years
Vergine - 5 years
Vergine Stravecchio - 10 years
What is special about Vergine Marsala?
Fortified after fermentation and does not permit addition of mosto cotto or sifnoe (therefore will be secco)
What is Solera Marsala?
Marsala that has been in a Solera five years
What does Vintage Marsala mean?
Vintage date refers to when it was fortified