• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/101

Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where and when did the Greeks originally colonize the Rhone?
Massalia (Marseilles) in 600 BC
When did the Romans arrive in the Rhone and what were their influences?
125 BC
Used the Rhone to ship Viennese vinum picatum to Rome
Installed terracing
When did Pope Clement V move his court from Rome to Avignon? When did it move back to Rome?
1309
1378
What happened to the wine trade in the Rhone in the 17th century?
Rhone wines were carried to the Loire and by the 18th century they were exported to England.
Many Bordeaux merchants blended the famous Hermitage wines to add body.
What was the first region in France to be struck by Phylloxera?
Southern Rhone in 1863
Who was the Baron du Roy?
Baron of Chateauneuf-du-Pape and started wine laws in 1923 to prevent fraud. Eventually became basis of AOC laws and Chateauneuf-du-Pape became the first AOC.
What is the climate of the Northern Rhone?
Continetal
Mistral from the Massif Central in winter and spring dries vineyards
What are the soils and aspect of the Northern Rhone
Steep slopes with heat-retaining granite and schist soils - many vineyards in Cote-Rotie, Condrieu and Hermitage are carved out of bedrock.
Fine sand is prone to erosion, although Condrieu has rich decomposed mica known as arzelle. Clay soils dominate in the southern part of the northern Rhone
What are the grape varietals of the Northern Rhone?
Viognier
Roussane
Marsanne
Syrah
What is Taille en Archet?
Vine staking to protect against le Mistral.
What are the typical notes of Syrah from the Northern Rhone?
Savory notes of smoke, grilled meat, olive, lavender, peppercorn, bacon fat, teriyaki.
What are foudres?
150 HL or greater oak casks used to ferment and age wine in the Rhone.
What are the main appellations for the Northern Rhone?
Cote Rotie
Condrieu
Chateau Grillet
St Joseph
Hermitage
Crozes-Hermitage
Cornas
St Peray
What is co-fermentation and why is it used in the Northern Rhone?
Fermentation of different varietals together. For the blend of whites and reds in the Rhone, it stabilizes red wine color and moderates tannin extraction.
What are the allowed varietals in Cote Rotie?
Red - Syrah with 20% Viognier
What are the allowed varietals in Condrieu?
White - Viognier
What is Chateu Grillet?
Small appellation on Condrieu that is 100% Viognier
What are the allowed varietals in St Joseph?
Red - Syrah with 10% Marsanne/Roussanne
White - Marsanne/Roussanne
What are the allowed varietals in Hermitage?
Red - Syrah with up to 15% Marsanne/Roussanne
White - Marsanne/Roussanne
Hermitage is a prominent hill
What are the allowed varietals in Crozes-Hermitage?
Red - Syrah with up to 15% Marsanne/Roussanne
White - Marsanne/Roussanne
What are the allowed varietals in Cornas?
Syrah only
What are the allowed varietals in St Peray?
Sparkling wines from Roussanne/Marsanne
Describe Cote Rotie AOP.
Northernost appellation in Northern Rhone
Steep vineyards, 55 degrees
Rises up a southeasterly aspect behind Ampuis.
2 Slopes near Apuils are most famous (Cote Brune and Cote Blonde)
Describe Hermitage
Prominent hill near Tain-l'Hermitage.
Produces rich reds.
Describe Cornas AOP?
Typically rustic wines slow to develop in the bottle.
Warmest vineyards of Northern Rhone
Naked granite soil
Relatively shielded from le mistral.
Use of demi-muids (600 L barrels)
Describe St-Joseph
Variable wines, with appellation's borders greatly enlarged from commune of Tournon-sur-Rhone.
Describe the sparkling wines of St Peray.
Methode traditionelle mousseux
Often blended
Roussanne adds acidity and waxy minerality
Marsanne adds broader, oily texture and marzipan character
What is vin de paille?
Apassimento dessert wine from Hermitage.
What are the smaller appellations in the Northern Rhone?
Coteaux de Die
Cremant de Die
Clairette de Die
Chatillon-en-Diois
Describe Condrieu.
Small appellation for Viognier with widely varying styles.
What is Cremant de Die?
MT wine made near Die in the northern Rhone mostly from Clairette but can have Aligote, Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
What is Coteaux de Die?
White wine appellation from Clairette in the northern Rhone
What is special about Clairette de Die?
Can be made MT (100% Clairette) with 15g/l or Methode Dioise Ancestrale (25% Clairette/75% Muscat a Petit Grans) which has tank disgorgement and then rebottled without disgorgement and with 35 g/l
What is Chatillon-en-Diois?
Anomalous AOP in the Rhone with Gamay based reds and roses and whites based on Aligote and Chardonnay
Describe the climate of the Southern Rhone.
Medeterranean with mistral and sirocco. Hot summers with large diurnal swings and heavy autumn rains with mild winters.
What is garrigue?
Scrubland of the southern Rhone.
Describe the soils of the Southern Rhone.
Alluvium over limestone. Lots of sand, gravel and clay along with quartzite galets.
What are the white grapes of the Southern Rhone?
Roussanne
Clairette
Picpoul
Bourboulenc
Grenache Blanc
Picardin
What are the red grapes typically found in the Southern Rhone
Syrah
Grenache
Mourvedre
Cinsault
Counoise
Terret Noir
Vaccarese
Muscardin
What are the main appellations for the Southern Rhone?
Cotes-du-Rhone
Cotes-du-Rhone Villages
Tavel
Chateauneuf-due-Pape
Gigondas
Vacqueyras
Lirac
Beaumes-de-Venise
Vinsobres
Rasteau
Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise
What is special about Chateauneuf-du-Pape?
Can be made with 13 different grapes, with whites only, reds or even 100% of certain varietals.
Must have 12.5% alcohol (highest in all of France)
Large area with 300 hectares
Some foudres, some bottling on demand, some carbonic, some barrique
Describe Gigondas
Elevated from CDRV in 1971
Reds and roses with min 50% max 80% Grenache (and typically Syrah/Mourvedre - other varietals are 10% of plantings max)
Describe Vacqueyras
Elevated from CDRV in 1990
Reds from Grenache blends with Syrah, Mourvedre, Clairette and Bourboulenc
Describe Beaumes-de-Venise and Vinsobres
Elevated in 2005 and 2006 from CDRV.
Min 50% Grenache
Describe Lirac
Red, white and roses from Grenach Noir and Blanc
Describe Tavel
Only communal appellation in France dedicated to Rose
Grenache-based
What is Muscat de Baumes-de-Venise?
Vin Doux Naturel
Produced through mutage where grape spirit is added to arrest fermentation
Frech and aromatic
Grapes - Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains and Muscat Rouge a Petits Grains
What is Rasteau?
Vin Doux Naturel produced through mutage
More tawny flavors
Ambre- white aged min 3 yrs
Tuile - red aged min 3 yrs
Hors d'age min 5 yrs
Fresh - blanc and grenat
Rancio - deliberately oxidized style
Grapes
Blanc - Grenache Blanc and Grenache Gris
Ambre - Grenache, Grenache Gris, Grenache Blanc
Rouge - Min 75 Grenache, plus Grenache Blanc and Gris
All can have accessory varieties
What is significant about the Grignan-les-Adhemar AOP?
Northernmost Southern Rhone AOP. Renamed in 2010 because used to share a name with the troubled Tricastin nuclear power plant.
What are the minor AOPs of the Southern Rhone?
Côtes du Vivarais
Luberon
Ventoux
Pierrevert
Costières de Nîmes
Clairette de Bellegarde
What are the famous estates of Chateauneuf-du-Pape?
Chateau de Beaucastel Rouge (Mourvedre + 12 other varietals)
Chateau Rayas (100% Grenache)
Chateau La Nerthe (First estate CNDP in 1785)
Describe the climate of Provence
Medeterranean, warm and dry
What is the major appellation and wine of Provence?
Cotes de Provence
75% of all Provence wine
Rose with a minimum of 20% saignee
Must be a blend of 2 varieties (typically Cinsault, Grenache, Mourvedre, Syrah and local garrigue-scented Tibouren)
What is the name of the traditional bottle of Provence?
Skittle
What are the three sub-zone designations for the Cotes de Provence? Can they have reds or whites or roses?
La Londe
Sainte-Victorie
Frejus
Rose and Reds
What is Bandol?
Appellation with Provence
Rose
Whites from Clairette
Red blends 50% Mourvedre (Grenache, Cinsault, Syrah, Carignan) with a min 18 months in oak - plummy, dense, animal
What is Les Baux de Provence AOP?
Former subappellation of Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provance
Warm hilltop appellation protected from Mistral
Reds and Rose from Grenache, Syrah and Cinsault
2011 added whites based on Grenache Blanc, Clairette, Vermentino and Roussanne
What are Cassis, Palette, Bellett and Coteaux Varois en Provance?
Appellations within Provence
Produce wines from all three colors
What is significant about the Cotes de Provence AOP
In flux with a lot of new regulations about encepagement making some producers resort to Vin de Pays
Only area outside of Bordeaux to publish a listing of Grand Cru Classe estates - 23 originally in 1955
What are the AOPs of Provence?
Codes de Provence
Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence
Les Baux de Provence
Coteaux Varois en Provence
Bandol
Bellet
Cassis
Palette
What are the AOPs of Corsica?
Vin de Corse
Muscat du Cap Corse
Patrimonio
Ajaccio
What are the grapes of Corsica?
Carignan
Alicante Bouschet
Nielluccio (Sang variant)
Sciarello
Vermentino
Grenache
Barbarossa
Ugni Blanc
Many other Rhone Grapes
What are the grapes in Vin de Corse AOP?
Nielluccio, Sciarello, Grenache, Barbaross and other Rhone Grapes for reds and roses
What are the grapes in white Vin de Corse?
Vermentino
Ugni Blanc
What is the VDN of Corsica?
Muscat du Cap Corse
What are the AOPs of the Eastern Languedoc?
Berlou (Red)
Clairette de Bellegarde
Clairette de Languedoc
Coteaux du Languedoc Pic Saint Loup
Costeres di Nimes
Faugeres (Red)
Languedoc (R/W/R)
Muscat de Frontignan (W/Fort)
Muscat de Lunel
Muscat de Mireval
Roquebrun (Red)
St-Chinan (R/W/R)
What are the AOPs of the Western Languedoc?
Cabardes (R/R)
Cotes de Malepere (Red)
Corberes (Red)
Corberes-Boutenac (Red)
Fitou (Red)
La Clape
Languedoc
Limoux (W/Spark)
Malepere (R/R)
Minervois (Red/W/R)
Minervois La Liviniere (Red)
Muscat de St-Jean Minervois (W/Fort)
Rivesaltes
What are the AOPS of Roussillon?
Banyuls Grand Cru (Red/Fort)
Banyuls (Red/Fort)
Collioure (Red)
Cotes de Roussillon
Cotes de Roussillon-Villages (Red)
Maury (W/Red)
Muscat de Rivesaltes (W/Fort)
Rivesaltes (W/Red)
Where are most of the quality AOPs in the Languedoc?
Western
What are the two districts of the Fitou AOP? What are their wines like?
Maritime
Montagneux
Carignan dominated
The Fitou AOP is a sub-AOP of what?
Corbieres AOP
What are the sub-zones of Corbieres AOP?
Fitou
Corbieres-Boutenac
All based on Carignan
What is the encepagement of Cabardes AOP in the Languedoc?
Grenache, Syrah and Bordeauxs
What is the encepagement of Malepere? WHen was it elevated?
Min 50% Merlot and Cab Franc
2006
What are the two sub-zones of St-Chinian?
Berlou
Roquebrun
What are the varietals for Limoux?
Still Red - Merlot
Still White - Chard, Chenin, Mauzac (fermented in oak)
Blanquette - min 90% Mauzac
Cremant - Max 20% Mauzac and PN (otherwise Chard & Pinot Blanc)
What are the prominent sub-appellations for Languedoc AOP? How many are there in total?
Terrasses du Larzac
La Clape
Pic-St-Loup
16
What is the typical blend for a Languedoc AOP red?
min 50% combined Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre and Lladoner Pelut, but makeup varies by sub-appellation
What are the fortified wine appellations of the Languedoc?
Muscat de Mireval
Muscat de Lunel
Muscat de St-Jean-de-Minervois
Muscat de Frontignan
What percentage of France's fortified wines are made in the Roussillon?
Over 90%
What is the largest producing fortified wine AOP in the Roussillon and what are it's styles?
Rivesaltes AOP
VDN
Ambre, tuile (oxidized and released March 1 3rd year after harvest)
Grenat (aged reductively 1 year and released after March 1st on 2nd year)
Rose
Hors d'Age (5 years min)
What are bonbonnes?
Glass containers used to age wine in Roussillon
What are the allowed grapes in Rivesaltes AOP?
Grenache (Noir/Gris/Blanc)
Maccabeo
Tourbat
Muscat of Alexandria
Muscat a Petit Grans
When using muscat only may be named Muscat de Rivesaltes AOP
What is mutage?
Adding spirit to create VDL or VDN
Invented in 13th century in Rivesaltes by Arnaud de Villeneuve in 13th century
What are other important VDNs in France?
Maury (range in styles from Grenache N/B/G)
Banyuls (at least 50% Grenache N)
Banuyls Grand Cru (at least 75% Grenache N)
What AOP releases unfortified Banyuls wines?
Collioure AOP
What types of wines are in Maury AOP?
VDN
Dry red allowed as of 2011
What is Cotes du Roussillon Les Aspres AOP?
Syrah and Mourvedre based red wines
Elevated in 2003
What is Cotes du Roussillon-Villages AOP?
Red wines of 32 communes to the north of Les Aspres
What is the overall classification for the Languedoc?
Vin de Pays d'Oc
What is Bergerac AOP?
Region in the SW of France
Produces R/W/R from Bordeaux varieties
Sec denotes dry whites
What is Cotes de Bergerac AOP?
Similar to Bergerac but requries higher minimum alcohol.
What is Pecharmant AOP?
Produces longest lived reds in Bergerac from Cab Franc, Sav, Merlot and Cot
Must have at least 3 varieties and no grape may be more than 65%
What are the sweet wines of Bergerac AOP?
Monbazillac (most noted, botrytised with multiple tries)
Saussignac
Rosette
Haut-Montravel
Cotes de Montravel
What are the AOPs of Bergerac?
Bergerac
Cotes de Bergerac
Pecharmant
Monbazillac
Saussignac
Rosette
Haut-Montravel
Cotes de Montravel
Montravel
What is Montravel AOP?
In Bergerac, produces dry whites and reds
What is Cahors AOP?
AOP in SW France
On Lot river
Min 70% Malbec with Tannat and Merlot
What is Madrian AOP?
AOP in Gascogny
Very tannic wines
60-80 Tannat, plus Cab Franc, Cab Sav and Fer
Who invented micro-oxygenation?
Patrick Ducournau in the early 1990s to soften Tannat in Madrian
What is Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOP?
Semi-sweet and sweet wines from Madrian in the Pyrenees
Petit Manseng, Petit Courbu, Arrufiac
What is the significance of the Gaillac AOP?
Vineyards are among the oldest in France, founded by the Romans.