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90 Cards in this Set

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Methode Champenoise?
Completion of secondary fermentation in bottle. Also called Methode Traditionnelle or Methode Classique
Who invented assemblage?
Invented by Dom Perignon, cellarmaster of the Abbey of Hautvillers from 1668 to 1715
When did the English put Champagne in coal-fired glass?
17th century
How is the term mousseux related to Champagne?
Back in the 18th century it implied effervescence in the reds and whites produced then
Unpredictable sparkle in the 18th century created the need for what terms?
Petillant
Demi-mousseux (cremant)
Grand mousseux
How did Champagne get its original reputation?
Louis, son of Charlemagne, was crowned at Reims in 816
Vuve Cliquot is famous for what processes?
Remuage and degorgement
Who identified the relationship between sugar and fermentation?
Jean-Antoine Chaptal
Who created the formulas for dosage?
Andre Francois
Who created the first brut Champagne?
Pommery with their "Nature' label in 1874.
What were the Champagne riots?
In 1911 in Aube after they were excluded in 1908, plus fraud due to phylloxera. Reinstated in 1927.
What is the Comission de Chalons?
A consortium of growers and merchants formed to develop quality standards and regulate pricing of grapes in champagne.
When was Champagne included as an AOC?
1936. It is still the only AOC that doesn't need AOC/AOP on the label.
Who was Otto Klaebisch?
The German "Weinfuhrer" who occupied the Vuve Cliquot estate during WWII.
When was the Comite Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne founded?
1941.
What is the CIVC? Who founded it?
Comite Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne. Founded by Count Robert-Jean de Vogue of Moet to organize a broad consortium of growers, producers and shippers to protect Champagne in the face of the Nazis.
What percentage of champagne's vineyards do merchant houses own?
10% The Controle des Structures prohibits any firm from farming more than 15 owned or rented hectares.
How many growers are in the Champagne collective and how much of the wine do they produce?
20,000 growers, 25%
What was the first famous tete du cuvee?
The 1921 vintage of Moet's Dom Perignon
When did the INAO most recently increase the definitions for champagne's area?
2009 with number of villages going from 319 to 357.
What is the climate of Champagne and what are its challenges?
Continental, 48th parallel with lots of influence from the Atlantic
Average temp 50 degrees
Frost, rain, fungal disease, hail and winter freeze are hazards
Rain often interrupts flowering, creating bouvreux (second crop) that never ripens
Quality can vary from year to year
Describe the general topography of Champagne.
Hills have porous belemnite chalk (cephlopods, high limestone content) which absorbs heat and allows vine roots to dig deeply.
Micraster (named after sea urchins) soil is in the valleys.
In the Aube clay dominates
What are the allowed grapes and percentages in Champagne in 2010?
Pinot Noir 39%
Pinot Meunier 32%
Chardonnay 29%
What do each of the grapes in Champagne provide?
Chardonnay - elegance and longevity
Pinot Noir - structure, richness and body
Pinot Menuier - youthful fruitiness and approachability
What alternate grapes are allowed in the Champagne AOP but typically not used?
Pinot Blanc Vrai
Arbane
Pinot Gris
Petit Meslier
What pruning methods are allowed in Champagne?
Cordon de Royat
Chablis
Vallee de la Marne
Guyot (double and simple)
Are old vines kept?
Generally no. Average age is 20 years and lower productivity is not tolerated.
What is the press limit on Champagne grapes?
100kg for 160kg of grapes
Give an example of the high yields in Champagne?
82 hl/ha in 2006
What is the yield limit during the press in Champagne?
102 L / 160 kg
Name the 5 districts of Champagne.
Montagne de Reims
Vallee de la Marne
Cote des Blancs
Cote de Sezanne
Cote des Bars (the Aube)
Where is Pinot Noir grown in Champagne?
Montagne de Reims
Cote des Bars (Aube)
Where is Chardonnay grown in Champagne?
Cote de Sezanne
Cote des Blancs
Where is Pinot Munier grown in Champagne?
Vallee de la Marne
What properties of Pinot Munier make it appropriate to grow in the Vallee de la Marne?
Late budding and early ripening for the cold environment
How many grand cru and 1er cru villages are in Champagne according to the Eschelle de Crus?
17 grand
44 1er
Types of Champagne producers?
Negociant Manipulant
Recolant Maniuplant
Cooperative Manipulant
Recolant Cooperateur
Societe de Recoltants
Negociant Distributeur
Marque d'Acheteur
What is a Negociant Manipulant?
Purchases grapes and wine from growers and smaller houses. Can have some domaine wine.
What is a Recolant Maniuplant?
Grower champagne producer (must be at least 95%)
What is a Cooperative Manipulant?
A growers coop that produces wine under a single brand
What is a Recolant Cooperateur?
A grower whose grapes are vinified at the cooperative but sells wine under his own label
What is a Societe de Recoltants?
A firm, not a coop, who share resources to make their wines and market their brands
What is a Negociant Distributeur?
Just as it sounds, a middleman distributor
What is a Marque d'Acheteur?
Buyer's own brand, often a large purchaser that produces its own label.
How is the wine divided during a champagne press?
From the 4000 kg of grapes the first 2050 L is the vin de cuvee and the next 500 is the vin de taille. The third extraction, rebeche, is required by law to be 1-10% of the total and is used for distillate.
How do champagne producers remove sediment before fermentation?
They let it settle (debourbage) at a cool temp for 8-15 hours so the solids (bourbes) can fall out.
Is chaptalization common in champagne?
Yes
Describe the base wine and its vinification in champagne?
Called vins clairs
Approx 11% alcohol
High acid
Stainless or (mostly) used barrels
Sometimes MLF
Clarification through fining, filtration or centrifuge
When is assemblage done?
Feb or March
What is the liqueur de tirage?
Mixture of wine, yeast and sugar to induce secondary fermentation
What is the French term for secondary fermentation?
Prise de mousse
How long does secondary fermentation last in MC/MT?
Approx 8 weeks
What changes happen to the alcohol and CO2 level in the wine during secondary fermentation?
Alcohol increases by 1.2-1.3% and the CO2 to 5-6 atmospheres
What is the French term for storing bottles horizontally during secondary fermentation?
Sur latte
What is the term for the process that gives champagne its yeasty flavor?
Autolysis
How long must champagne remain on the lees prior to degorgement?
12 months minimum
Traditionally what would you have to do before riddling?
Pointage (shaking) the bottle. Newer strains of yeast make this unnecessary
How long would it take to do remuage?
8 weeks
How many bottles could a top remuer handle a day?
70,000
What is the capacity of a gyropalette?
504 bottles
L3 What are the Grand Cru Villages of Montagne de Reims?
Sillery
Puisieulx
Beaumont-sur-Vesle
Verzenay
Mailly
Verzy (1985)
Louvois
Bouzy
Ambonnay
L3 What are are the Grand Cru Villages of Vallee de la Marne?
Ay
Tours-sur-Marne (red only)
L3 What are the Grand Cru Villages of the Cote des Blancs?
Chouilly (white only 1985)
Oiry (1985)
Cramant
Avize
Oger (1985)
Les Mesnil-sur-Oger (1985)
What are the two methods of disgorgement?
Degorgement a la glace - freezing in brine
Degorgement a la volee - old fashioned way of shooting it out
What is the liqueur d'expedition?
Mixture of sugar and wine to adjust sugar levels of wine
L3 What are the pre-2010 sweetness levels for champagne?
Extra brut 0-6
Brut 0-15
Extra dry 12-20
Sec 17-35
Demi-sec 33-50
Doux >50
L3 What are the post-2010 sweetness levels for champagne?
Extra brut 0-6
Brut 0-12
Extra dry 12-17
Sec 17-32
Demi-sec 32-50
Doux >50
What is the name for the wire cage surrounding a cork?
Muselet
How much aging is required after final bottling for champagne?
NV at least 3 months (15 months total)
Vintage at least 36 months total
Why is bottle aging critical for champagne?
Gets rid of sulfur notes and youthful austerity
What are the sizes for a champagne bottle?
Piccolo 187mL
Demi 375 mL
Bottle 750 mL
Magnum 1.5 L
Jeroboam 3 L (4)
Rehoboam (discont 1989) 4.5 L (6)
Methuselah 6 L (8)
Salmanazar 9 L (12)
Balthazar 12 L (16)
Nebuchadnezzar 15 L (20)
Solomon 18 L (24)
When is the transfer method allowed in champagne?
When dealing with bottles larger than a Jeroboam or smaller than a half.
What does NV style champagne mean?
Generally brut and represents the house's signature style. 75% of the market.
What does vintage champagne mean? How much of a harvest can be used for vintage champagne?
100% must come from stated vintage, yet a max 80% of harvest can be used for vintage. Usually brut and can age a decade.
What does blanc de blancs champagne mean?
100% Chard, not always sourced from the Cote des Blancs. May be dated or NV. Most ageworthy.
What does blanc de noirs champagne mean?
White from black grapes, usually has a richness and intensity but it can lack finesse.
What does Prestige Cuvee (Tete de Cuvee) champagne mean?
Usually the finest bottling that a househas to offer. Typically vintage and extra aged, along with more traditional procedures such as barrel fermentation, hand riddling and cork finishing during second fermentation.
What does Single Vineyard champagne mean?
Simply must come from one vineyard. Can be NV (though typically are vintage), can be a prestige
What does Special Club Prestige Cuvee champagne mean?
Made by Club Tresors, a group of small grower-producers founded in 1971 with the same packaging to market their wines. Estate bottled and vintage dated.
What does rose champagne mean?
Can be vintage, NV and prestige. Saignee is less common than blending (only AOP that allows blending to produce rose).
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Moet et Chandon?
Dom Perignon
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Tattinger?
Comtes de Champagne
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Louis Roederer?
Cristal
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Laurent-Perrier?
Grande Siecle
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Perrier-Jouet?
Belle Epoque (Fleur de Champagne in the US)
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Pol Roger?
Cuvee Sir Winston Churchill
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Runart?
Dom Ruinart
What is the Prestige Cuvee for Vuve Cliquot-Ponsardin?
La Grande Dame
What is the Coteaux Champenois AOP?
Still wine appellation for Champagne that covers still red, white and rose wines.
What is the Rose de Riceys AOP?
100% Pinot Noir rose produced in Les Riceys, a cru village in Aube