Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
If both legs have pain, would it be called sciatica?
No, L5, S1 Radiculopathy
Most common radiculopathy?
Sciatica; compression of L4 or L5 or S1, 2, 3; may not be all of them. A disc is pressing on the nerve root causing pain.
When we say sciatica what do we mean?
We are describing the set of symptoms rather than a diagnosis.
Pseudosciatica (non-discogenic sciatica) can be caused by:
More peripheral (farther down along nerve) arthritis of facet joints in lower back as well as piriformis syndrome - 15% of population's sciatic nerve runs through piriformis (compression of man's wallet); prolonged sitting, overweight; pregnancy (uterus presses on sciatic nerve)
When do trigger points occur?
muscles become ischemic (low blood flow) during injury or chronic muscular contraction.
What is a physical examination that can lead to diagnosing sciatica?
Straight leg raise (also called Lasegue's); patient may also have a weakness raising their toe or foot drop: dorsi flexing the foot
Risk factors for Gingivitis
*poor dental hygiene
Complementary therapies can include:
exercise, weight loss, posture, calcium supplementation, cessation smoking, estrogen supplementation, testosterone supplementation, massage therapy, acupuncture
Etiology of gingivitis
bacterial plaque
Gingivitis can progress to
Apthous ulcer also known as
canker sore (open sore inside the mouth or upper throat characterized by a break in mucous membrane)
True of False
Oral herpes (herpes simplex virus I) becomes an ulcer
Chrones can manifest where in the body?
anywhere between the mouth and anus
What is the main cause of
stress, menses, sun exposure
Cold sore/Fever blister = ?
Canker sore = ?
Cold Sore/Fever blister = Herpes Simplex I
Canker Sore = Apthous Ulcer
Autoinoculation of herpes simplex I means
you can give it to other parts of your own body
Risk factors for candida
diabetes, cortizone asthma sprays, newborns, denture users, birth control pill users, immuno compromise (AIDS, etc can lead to systemic candida)
GERD most typical symptom
heartburn may be accompanied by hiatal hernia
Other GERD symptoms
dysphagia- trouble swallowing; odynophagia - pain swallowing, nausea, chest pain, vomitting (food stagnation)
Commonly used GERD Medications:
Prilosec; Zantac; Tagamet; Protonix
Where do most peptic ulcers arise?
Duodenum (first part of SI) rather than the ST and are generally benign
Peptic ulcers can be worse by
aspirins, NSAIDS
Pain of Peptic Ulcer vs. Cholethiasis
Worse before the meal and sometimes relieved by the meal; worse after the meal and made worse by the meal
True or False
Most Cholelithiasis may be asymptomatic
Where can Gallstone pain occur
between shoulder blades, pain in the shoulders (mostly right), pain in the back, right upper quadrant,
Murphy's sign is
pain in right upper quadrant experienced during a deep breath
Gallstones can cause infection called
Cholecystitis: fever, chills, jaundice, lightly colored or clay colored stools
Celiac Disease caused by
reaction to gluten found in wheat, gliadin
Symptoms of Celiac Disease
diarrhea (non-bloody), cramping, abdominal distention, mouth ulcers, IBS
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
IBS symptoms with Herpes TYPE rashes, increased anxiety,fatigue, dyspepsia, musculoskeletal pain
NICE recommends screening for celiac disease in patients with:
chronic fatigue, IBS, Type I diabetes, insufficient weight gain, unexplained weight loss
Chrohn's Disease symptoms
skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, lack of concentration
Autoimmune Disease
Chrohn's Consequences
strictures (narrowing of lumen - inside of bowel)
bloody or non-bloody diahhrea
IBS is considered
functional bowel disorder, psychoimmunological disorder
IBS vs. Crohn's
main difference: over time Crohn's disease patients are sicker and have more pain. Results in strictures, scarring, narrowing, that can cause impactions. Also bloody diarrhea indicative of Crohn's. Granulomas (pancake shaped scar tissue) can be detected
Diverticulosis risk factors
over the age of 40, bloating, pain
Diverticulosis definition
condition having diverticula in the colon, outpocketings of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weakness of muscle layers of colon wall more common in sigmoid colon
Diverticulosis symptoms
1. bloating 2. changes in bowel movements (constipation, diarrhea 3. non-specific chronic discomfort in lower left abdomen with acute episodes of sharper pain 4. abdominal pain after meals often in left lower abdomen
Which would you treat with low fiber diet?
IIncreased Risk Factors for Diverticulosis
increasing age, constipation, diet that is low in dietary fiber content high in fat, high intake of meat or red meat, connective tissue disorder (such as Marfan syndrome) that may cause weakness in colon wall
Definition of Trigeminal Neuralgia
characterized by severe episodes of pain in the face, originating in one of three trigeminal nerves
Where does pain of Trigeminal Neuralgia occur?
ear, eye, lips, nose, scalp, forehead, cheeks, teeth, or jaw alongside face, some also experience pain in their left index finger
True or False:
Trigeminal Neuralgia is easily cured and controlled
Bell's Palsy definition:
idiopathic facial paralysis; dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)
Bell's Palsy causes paralysis on which side of the face?
Same side of face as Facial Nerve (VII) dysfunction
Conditions that may cause facial paralysis include:
brain tumor, stroke, Lyme disease
Bell's Palsy vs. "Central Seven"
Central Seven is an Upper Motor Neuron lesion
What part of the face does Central Seven affect?
only lower part of face on contralateral side, due to bilateral control of upper facial muscles
Meniere's Disease is classified by four symptoms:
1. periodic episodes of rotary vertigo or dizziness
2. fluctuating, progressive, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss usually in lower frequencies
3. unilateral or bilateral tinnitus
4. sensation of fullness or pressure in both ears.
Although Meneire's is idiopathic it is believed to be related to:
endolymphatic hydrops bursting causting damage or excess fluid in the ear
Vagus nerve is responsible for:
heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, speech, keeping larynx open for breathing; afferent fivers of outer ear
When a person coughs when tickled in the ear it is due to which nerve?
Vagus Nerve
Activation of Vagus Nerve leads to:
reduction in heart rate and blood pressure
Vasovagal Syncope is caused by
excessive activation of vagal nerve during emotional stress, which is parasympathetic overcompensation of a strong sympathetic nervous response causing drop in blood pressure and heart rate
Vasovagal Syncope affects:
young children and women
Vasovagal Syncope can lead to
temporary loss of bladder control under moments of extreme fear
Valsava maneuver is perfomed by:

And is used for:
*forcible exhalation against closed airway, (closed mouth, pinched nose)
*test of cardiac and autonomic nervous system function of controlling the heart; or to clear the ears
Cranial Nerve XI is also called
accessory nerve, cranial accessory nerve, or spinal accessory nerve
Cranial Nerve is for
A. Sensory
B. Motor
B. Motor
The origin of the Accessory Nerve is:
Cranial and Spinal Roots
The Spinal Accessory Nerve controls which muscles?
Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
One-sided shoulder raise test suggests injury to which side of spinal accessory nerve?
Same side
Weakness in head turning testing sternocleidomastoid suggests injury to which side of spinal accessory nerve?
opposite side
Tension-like headaches resulting from prolonged, inappropriate posture or poor ergonomic adaption result in:
Atlanto-Occipital and Tension Headaches
Atlanto-Occipital Joint and Tension Headaches can cause symptoms such as:
cracking of neck, discomfort when sitting, continuous migraine-like headaches, dullness, dizziness, tingling in fingers, sensitivity to light and feeling like head is expanding
Radiculopathy is defined as:
In a radiculopathy, the problem is at or near the root of the nerve, along the spine. However, the pain or other symptoms may manifest in an extremity through a process called referred pain.
Most common Cervical Spine Injuries occur at:
C6, C7 which Extends elbow and wrist (triceps) and wrist extensors); pronates wrist