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12 Cards in this Set

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Sumarians
3classes
upper:kings, nobels,priests,gov't officials
middle:merchants farmers soldiers
lower:slaves

*Developed 1st written language (cuneiform)
*Studied math and science -advanced math
created a system for subdividing a day and a year and a circle into 360 degrees
*skillful in using the wheel
*invented the arch and zuggurat
Assyrians
*Established 1st library 22,000 in sumerian cuineform
*traders and fierce warriors
*built system of roads
*system where goveror was appointed to oversee kings territory
Babylonians
*Hammurabi's code:282 laws based on strong should not injure the weak
*Nubuchadrezzar II - conqured and spent money to build up babylon. he created the haning gardens
*belived in astrology which led to the study of astronomy
The Hebrews
*Believed in a single all powerful God
*Recorded the bible
*moral behavior based on 10 commandments set new standards
*Their prophets fought for justice for the poor and weak
Phoenicians
*Invented an alphabet to keep track of business trade records
_22 letters that represented the sounds of the human voice
_made it easier to read and write
_because of their travels, its use spread
*Skilled traders and shipbuilders. One of 1st to sail at night by the stars
*developed artistic skills
*traded all over the mediterranean
Persians
*divided their empire into provinces for easier rule
*built roads and canals
*wrote the Avesta, a religous book based on beliefs of prophet Zoroaster
Hittites
*1st to use iron instead of softer metals such as copper and bronze
*Signed some of the 1st treaties
King HattusiliIII and Kim Ramses II of Egypt signed a treaty.
-Agreed not to make war on each other
-help each other if attacked
-respect each others borders
Egyptians
*made paper from papyrus reed
*invented a calandar
*built pyramids
*invented the shadoof, a crane like device for lifter water from the nile
*used a loom to weave cloth for clothing
*invented hieroglyphics
Egyptian people
King Menes-united egypt, 1st pharaoh
Queen Hatshepsut-daughter of Thumtmose I who became Queen and later married
ThutmoseII and became pharaoh after his death
AmenhotepIV/Akhenaten-believed in worshiping one god, Aten the sun god
Cleopatra-a queen of Egypt
Ancient Greece - Athens
athens
*direct democracy. every citizen was a memeber of the assembly. The assembly passed laws
*golden age of athens/pericles - time of great writing and learning, architecture
*Socrates, plato, aristotle
Ancient Greece - Sparta
Sparta
*Military state
*every male spartan became a soldier
*boys left home and began training at age 7
*had slaves
*little in arts and sciences
*disliked athenian way of life
*Peloponnesian war - sparta defeated athens
Accomplishments of the greeks
*developed worlds 1st democracy
*1st to take a scientific approach to medicine by observing and carefully studying disease (hippocrates, father of medicine)
*playwrites wrote 1st dramas (euripides and sophocles)
*invented rules of geomotry and math. Wrote geomotry text Elements
*developed the art of philosophy to search for wisdom and truth (SPA)
*Outstanding literature and poetry. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey and Sapho's poems
*Wrote the 1st histories
*studied and classified plants
*beautiful buildings and sculptures - heavy use of columns, DIC