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178 Cards in this Set

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U.S. History
Exploration and Colonization
1. The opening of new worlds was associated with age of discovery.
2. England developed permanent colonies in North America
U.S. History
"Age of Discovery"
(1450 - 1763)
1. European explorers in search of Asia discovered a new continent.
2. The "Age of Discovery" resulted in renewed European rivalry.
3. Spain, France, England, Portugal, and the Netherlands competed for land.
U.S. History
England developed permanent colonies in North America
(1450 - 1763)
1. Geographic diversity helped to create distinct economic regions.
2. The English colonies began to develop self govt.
3. The population of the colonies steadily increase.
4. The idea of free public education started in the colonies.
5. Class distinctions were less rigid that in England, a strong middle class emerged.
6. The most prevalant religion of the colonies was Protestant.
U.S. History
Geographic diversity helped to create distinct economic regions
(1450 - 1763)
1. The New England colonies were associated with shipbuilding and commerce.
2. The middle colonies were associated with farming and commerce.
f3. The southern colonies were associated with tobacco, cotton, and slavery.
U.S. History
The English colonies began to develop self govt.
(1450 - 1763)
1. The Mayflower Compact (1620) was the basis for govt. by the consent of the goverened.
2. The House of Burgesses (1619) was an early colonial attempt at representative self -govt.
3. The colonists demanded their rights as Englishmen.
U.S. History
The population of colonies steadily increased
(1450 - 1763)
1. Large families of 10 or more were common.
2. Steady immigration from abroad increased the overall population.
3. Europeans and Africans were the major population groups.
U.S. History
The most prevalent religion in the colonies was Protestant.
(1450 - 1763)
1. A single, established church was not practical in America.
2. The decline of Puritanism led to a greater religous tolerance.
U.S. History
The formation of the New Nation
1. The French and Indian War (1756-1763) was a key turning point in England's domination over North America.
2. Background to the American Revolution (1763-1776)
3. The American Revolution (1776 - 1781) was fought to obtain independence.
4. The Articles of the Confederation (1781 - 1789) proved inadequate as a central govt.
5. The need for a stron central govt. led to the framing of the Constitution (1789).
6. The govt. under the Constitution solved many major problems.
U.S. History
The French and Indian War (1756-63) was a key turning point in England's domination over North America.
1. The English victory ended the French threat in America.
2. The English victory encouraged colonial America to seek a more active voice in its own affairs.
U.S. History
Background to the American Revolution
(1763 - 1776)
1. The English mercantile policy discouraged colonial economic independence.
2. Colonial concepts of political and economic freedom were key factors leading to the American Revolution.
3. Colonial opposition to British actions steadily increased during this period.
4. The colonies used a variety of methods to change British actions; petitions, boycotts, and other measures were used.
5. The Declaration of Independence state the purposed for the colonies' break with England.
U.S. History
The American Revolution
1. Problemsof military effectiveness hindered the colonial effort.
a. Colonial armies were underequipped.
b. There was a widespread opposition to fixed military terms.
2. Washington's leadership turned the tide of the battle.
a. The French alliance (1778) brought needed men, equipment, and money to the American cause.
b. The defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown (1781) brought victory to the colonies.
U.S. History
The Articles of Confederation (1781-89) proved inadequate as central govt.
1. The Articles held the nation together during the critcal period.
2. The Articles were limited by major weakness.
a. The national govt. did not have the power to regulate foreign trade.
b. The national govt. did not have a court system.
c. The national govt. did not have an independent taxing power.
U.S. History
The govt. under the Constitution solved many major problems.
1. A federal system was created that divided federal and state power.
2. Separation of powers and checks and balances were established to divide the power of the new govt.
a. The legislative, executive, and judicial branches were established to divide the power of the new govt.
b. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to protect the rights of the people.
U.S. History
The New Nation
(1787 - 1823)
1. The early national period tested the new federal govt.
2. The War of 1812 (1812-1815) was fought between the U.S. and Great Britain.
3. The new nationalism (1816-23) followed the War of 1812.
U.S. History
The early national period tested the new federal govt.
2. Hamilton's financial plan led to the development of political parties.
3. Foreign policy during the early national period was weak and ineffectual.
4. The Lousiana Purchase (1803) became the greatest real estate purchase in U.S. History.
U.S. History
Hamilton's financial plan placed the national govt. on a sound financial basis.
1. The national govt. paid back the state, national, and foreign debts to demonstrate the credibility of the new govt.
2. The national govt. encouraged American business expansion by passing excise taxes and a tariff.
3. The national govt raised revenue by initiating a tax on domestic whiskey.
4. The national govt authorized the use of coins and paper money to encourage the growth of commerce.
5. The national govt encouraged the development of a national bank to faciliate the expansion of business.
U.S. History
Hamilton's financial plan led the development of polictical parties.
1. The Federalist part believed in the concept of a strong Federal govt ruled bu the manufacturing interests of the country (Hamilton). Favored the rich and wealthy.
2. The Antifederalist party believed in the concept of limited federal power based on the farming interests of the country (Jefferson). Developed a political philosophy that believed in the worth of the individual.
U.S. History
The War of 1812 (1812-15) was fought between the U.S. and Great Britain
1. Among the causes of the War of 1812 were violations of U.S. neutrality and impressment of U.S. sailors.
2. The U.S. victory resulted in national pride, self sufficiency, and foreign credibility.
U.S. History
The new nationalism (1816-23) followed the War of 1812.
1. The scope and authority of the Supreme Court were established during this period.
2. The Era of Good Feelings characterized the politcal successes of the Republican Party.
3. The Monroe Doctrine defined American interests in the Northern Hemisphere.
4. The new nationalism led to a development of a new American culture.
U.S. History
The Rise of Democracy and the Western Movement
1. Jacksonian democracy (1826-36) symbolized the rise of the "common man."
2. The Whig Party oppsed the Democratic Party's belief in states' rights and instead favored a strong national govt.
3. The territorial expansion of the U.S. reached from Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
U.S. History
Jacksonian democracy (1826-36) symbolized the rise of the "common man."
1. Jackson's war against the bank and the tariff were key issues for the new Democratic party.
2. Jackson initiated the spoils system in which political enemies are replaced by political friends.
3. Jackson pursued nationalistic policies.
U.S. History
The territorial expansion of the U.S. reached from Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
1. The rise of the new West created opportunities in transportation, education, politics, mining, and agriculture.
2. Manifest Destiny encouraged U.S. expansion to the Pacific.
a. Texas was annexed to the U.S. in 1837.
b. The Oregon Territory was added to the U.S. in 1846 and encouraged settlement of the far west.
c. The Mexican War (1848)added California and parts of the Southwest to the U.S.
U.S. History
The Background of the Civil War and Reconstruction
1. Geographic and economic factors contributed to the growth of slavery.
2. The expansion of slavery was a political issue prior to the 1850's.
3. The failure of the politics of compromise led to war.
4. The Civil War threatened the Union (1861-65)
5. Reconstruction attempts to reunite the nation (1865-66)
U.S. History
Geographic and economic factors contributed to the growth of slavery.
1. The dependence on slavery and cotton created a unique Southern economy.
2. The development of the "Cotton South" led to sectionalism.
U.S. History
The expansion of slavery was a political issue prior to 1850.
1. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 limited the spread of slavery.
2. The annexation of Texas (1837) added ptential slave territory to the U.S.
3. The Mexican War (1848) was criticized as proslavery, an expansionist war.
U.S. History
The failure of the politics of compromise led to war.
1. The Compromise of 1850 failed to hold the nation together.
2. In the 1850's, slavery and sectionalism continued to threaten the Union.
3. The failure of the Kansas - Nebraska act (1854) led to bloodshed over the expansion of slavery.
4. The Dred Scott decison failed to solve the slavery question.
5. The election in 1860 of Lincoln, a sectional candidate, made seccession inevitable.
U.S. History
The Civil War threatened the Union (1861 - 65)
1. The North and South prepared for war.
a. The North had an overall superiority in manpower, firepower, and economic resources.
b. The South had advantages in leadership and territory.
2. The Union strategy of isolating the South proved successful.
a. The Union blockade economically strangled the South.
b. The defeat at Gettysburg (1863) ended the Southern chances for foreign recognition.
c. Economic and military weaknesses led to Lee's surrender at Appomattox. (1865)
U.S. History
Reconstruction attempts to reunite the nation (1865-66)
1. Following the Civil War, the economic, political, social, and military reconstruction of the South was necessary.
2. The President and Congress differed on how to reconstruct the South.
a. Presidential plan emphasized tolerance for the defeated South.
b. Congressional (Radical) plan emphasized the use of military force in treating the South like a conquered territory.
3. Reconstruction was under Radical control from 1868 to 1876.
a. The 14 and 15 Ammendments were passed.
b. Civil Rights bills were passed.
c. Military rule supported Radical Reconstruction.
d. President Johnson was impeached for opposing Radical Reconstruction.
4. The disputed election of 1876 ended Radical Reconstruction.
a. Social justice for blacks received a setback.
b. The national commitment to equal opportunity was delayed 100 years.
U.S. History
New Economy
1. The industrial development of the U.S. was encouraged by Western expansion.
2.THe industrial growth of the U.S. was greatly expanded.
3. Industrialization reflected changing attitudes and conditions.
U.S. History
The industrial development of the U.S. was encourage by Western Expansion
1. The settlement of the West was aided by the Homestead Act of 1862 and the transcontinental railroad (1869)
U.S. History
The industrial growth of the U.S. was greatly expanded.
1. Inventions promoted industrial growth.
2. Raw materials and geographic factors contributed to regional economic diversity.
3. The development of communication and transportation aided the industrial growth of America.
4. New methods of production such as the division of labor, standardized parts, the assembly line, and mass production fostered the expansion of industry.
5. Expanding markets at home and abroad encouraged industrial expansion.
6. The development of steel, mining, electric, petroleum, textile, and food-processing industries characterized the period.
U.S. History
Industrialization reflected changing attitudes and conditions.
1. Mechanization and the factory system were introduced.
2. The growth of labor unions resulted from problems caused by industrialization.
3. Social, economic, and political changes became evident.
The rise of cities paralleled the industrial growth in America.
5. The need for govt. intervention increased.
a. The Sherman (1890) and Clayton (1914) Antitrust Acts restricted the power of giant corporations.
b. Workmen's comp laws, child labor laws, and regulations on working conditions and minimum wages were part of the congressional reform movement to improve the plight of the working man.
6. The need for conservation of natural resources was a result of the continued industrial growth of America.
U.S. History
Spain's colonial power with its orignial geographic area in North America
Southwest of North America
U.S. History
England's colonial power with its original geographic area in North America
Atlantic Coast of North America below Canada and set up 13 colonies. divided into New England, Middle, and Southern colonies with distinct geographical, cultural, and economic differences. Also, had colonies in the Caribbean.
U.S. History
France's colonial power with its original geographic area in North America
Mississippi River Region, the Louisiana Territory, the Great Lakes, and Canada.
U.S. History
The Netherland's colonial power with its original geographic area in North America
small area in the Hudson River valley
which English colony was not founded as a result of religous persecution?
Georgia founded by James Oglethorpe was the last of the 13 colonies. brought debtors and former prisoners to provide a population base to protect Georgia from Spanish territorial expansion.
why was maryland founded?
for Catholic religous freedom.
why was Rhode Island founded?
extensive religous freedom for all religions
why was Pennsylvania founded?
provide religous freedom for the Quakers
why was Massachusetts founded?
religous freedom for Puritans
why was Delaware founded?
religous freedom for Quakers
reasons why french aided english colonies during the American revolution.
France saw the American Revolution as a means to weaken military and political power of England. weaker england would result in a stronger france. france still resented the loss of Canada to the english as a result of the Seven Years war. following the french and indian war, england became the greatest colonial, commercial, and naval power in the world. by 1779. both france and spain recognized the American colonies as a independent country.
First Continental Congress
met in 1774 to protest the Intolerable Acts. As a result of the Boston Tea Party (1773), Britain passed a series of acts designed to punish the colonists: closing the port of Boston, trying colonists for high crimes in England, and quartering British troops in colonial homes. Colonies refered to these acts as intolerable and demanded their repeal.
Date of Boston Massacre
Stamp Act
Background causes of American Revolution
American massacre, stamp act
power not written into the constitution but exercised by the supreme court in as early as 1803
judicial review. exercised by the supreme court in the famous Marbury v. Madison case (1803). refers to the power of the federal courst to interpret the constitution and the courts to exercise checks and balances over the legislative and executive branches. In McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819) the supreme court affirmed the right of congress to use implied powers and exercise the necessary and proper clause of Article I. the pwer to dtermine the number of court justices is given to congress.
Hamilton's financial plan
proposed a series of laws to protect the emerging industrial economy of the new nation. using power of fed govt to strengthen manufacturing interests of the country. came into direct conflict with the ag interests of the south. southern states were against expanding the power of the fed govt at the expense of the rights of the states. his plan for a protective tariff designed to protect emergent domestic industries against foreign competition angered the south. industrial sector of the country was primarily in the north. plan seemed to offer little benefit to the south. led to rise of political parties in the new nation. federalists (hamilton and adams) favored strong central govt and Antifederalists (Jefferson and Madison) favored strong state govt. plan passed an excise tax on whiskey, favored industrial segment of economy, and established a national currency.
system based on a written constitution in which state and fed govt have distinct functions. national govt is sovereign (independent) in such matters such as interstate commerce, declaring war, and making treaties. unless there is a constitutional conflict, state govt are generally sovereign in matters of local control such as passing local and state laws. 10 Ammendment states that powers not granted to the federal goct by the Constitution exclusively, or denied to the states are reserved to the states.
the war of 1812 was unpopular in the Northeast based on a vote in congress. why?
impressment of american sailors by the british and continued british violations of the u.s. neutrality were leading factors in declaring war against england in 1812. northeast viewed the war as a land grab by those who favored war (western war hawks) who wanted to obtain canada for the U.S. The War of 1812 intensified the sectional interests developing in the country following the Revolutionary war. Federalists opposition harmed its credibility as political party and led to its demise. one important result of 1812 was that new nation gained international respect as a country.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 intensified both the antislavery debate and the abolitionist attitudes in the U.S. portrayed vivid tales of injustices and inhumanities of slavery. turned public opinion against slavery by the civil war and sold over 2 million copies. south condemned the book as an unfair portrayal of southern life.
Dred Scott Decision
1857, Supreme Court case that prohibited slaves from suing the Federal govt on the grounds that slaves were not citizens injustice was overturned by the 14 Amendment
reasons for industrial expansion in the northeast following civil war
available resources, efficient transportation, abundant supplies of power, and excellent access to markets. access to great lakes and ports for foreign shipments
availablity of cheap labor

not Transcontinental Railroad because it was completed in 1869. it went from omaha to sacremento.
vast majority of immigrants to the u.s from 1840 to 1880 primarily came from?
10 million came from northern and western europe. refered to the "old" immigration.

new immigrants cam e from eastern, central, and southern europe
most revolutionary impact on economic development in the American west during the 19th century
barbed wire becuase resulted in much open range land being privately owned, encouraging the development of stock farming, centralization, and town building. doomed the open cattle range making it possible for thousands of homesteads to fence off land preventing cattle from destroying crops
Andrew Johnson's presidency duing Reconstruction
1866-67 reconstruction policy of leniency to the defeated south angered and frustrated the radical republicans in control of congress. vetoed a number of bills designed to protect the freedom of the former slaves. among the acts vetoed were the acts creating the Freedmen's Bureau and several civil rights acts. over the opposition of Johnson, congress passed reconstruction acts that divided the south into five military districts, disenfranchised white southern males, and forced states to ratify the 14 ammendement, which extended citizenship to former slaves. constitutional crisis resulted when johnson removed a govt official in violationof the tenure office act. house impeached johnson bu he was acquitted by one vote in the senate.
Doctrine of Nullification proposed by John C Calhoun
tariff of 1832 led to the nullifcation crisis. John C Calhoun, vp of the U.S., supported south carolina's nullification legislation that allowed a state to nullify an act of congress. said that the fed govt could not collect the tariff. crisis was averted with the compromise of 1833. although the tariff was lowered, President Jackson threatened to send in Federal troops to stop nullification. south carolina repealed the ordinace of nullification and constitutional crisis was averted. issue intensified in a sectional issue that would lead to the civil war. only supreme court has the final constitutional authority to declare state and federal laws unconstitutional. according to the doctrine of nullification, the power to declare and act of congree unconstitutional rested with the state legislature.
major military strategy of the north was based on geographically dividing the south at?
northern control of the mississippi river would effectively isolate five southern states from the Confederacy (louisiana, mississippi, arkansas, tennessee, and texas). controlling the mississippi would geographically split the confederacy and limit the supply avenues open to the south. military strategy of the north was based on the south having to fight a defensive war. same approach led to the blockade of the southern coast with the fall of vicksburg in 1863, mississippi came under union control.
court decisions during the era of chief justice john marshall (1801-35) shaped the role of the Supreme Court in the national govt. how
Marshall served for 34 years as chief justice.

marbury vs. madison

mculloch vs. maryland
McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819, congress had chartered a national bank. state of maryland opposed the concept of a national bank and placed high taxes on the bank. bank's officer refused to pay the tax and maryland sued the national govt for payment.
two main questions before the court. 1. did congress have the authority to establish a national bank? 2. if congress had such authority did the state have the authority to tax a federal institution?

courts decision established the concept of implied powers or powers not directly stated in the constitution. court stated that congress has the authority to make all the laws that are necessary and proper and therefore a national bank is constitutional. court also stated that a state does not have the authority to tax a federal institution. significance of this decision is that it strengthened the national govt and limited the powers of the states.
identify each branch of govt.
legislative, executive, and judicial
principle of separation of powers
constitution distributes power so that it is shared and that no one branch of govt can become all powerful. by having three distinct branches of govt. with specific powers, the possibility of abuse of power is reduced. structure also engourages broad deliberation before legislation is passed.
legislative branch
congress is responsible for making laws, power to declare war
executive branch
president is responsible for enforcing the laws, can veto acts of congress
judicial branch
courts are responsible for interpreting the laws, declare acts of congress unconstitional
World History
Early Civilzations
1. The Near East
2. Selected acheivements of Mesopotamia civilaztions
3. Unique contributions of smaller civilizations of the near east.
4. Egypt established a civilization in the Nile Valley (3000 BC).
World History
The Near East
1. The Ancient Near East comprised of the Tigris and Euphrates valley, the Fertile Crescent, and the Nile Valley
2. Cultural contributions associated with the ancient Near East.
a. The first system of independent states
b. the first system of writing (cuneiform and hieroglyphics)
c. the first massive architectual acheivements (ziggurat and pyramid)
d. the first lasting monotheism
e. the beginning of science, math, and astronomy
f. the codification of law
World History
Selected Acheivements of Mesopotamia civilizations
1. The Sumerians were the creators of Mesopotamia civilization (3500 - 3000 BC)
a. material progress included large scale irrigation projects, an advanced system of math, and the invention of the wheel
b. the ziggurat was the center of community life and served as a temple, storehouse, and treasury
c. Sargon established t he first empire (c. 2371 BC)
World History
Selected Acheivements of Mesopotamia civilizations
1. The Babylonians conquered Sumeria and established a new empire (2300 - 1750 BC)
a. The code of Hammurabi was the universal written code that regulated society (1750s BC)
b. Babylonian acheivements included centralized govt. and advancements in algebra and geometry
World History
Selected Acheivements of Mesopotamia civilizations
1. The Hittites (2000 - 1200 BC) conquered much of Asia minor and northern Mesopotamia; a major contrubution included the invention of iron smelting, which revolutionized warfare.
World History
Selected Acheivements of Mesopotamia civilizations
1. The Assyrians created an empire based on military superiority, conquest, and terrorism (911 - 538 BC)
a. Military techniques included seige warfare, intimidation, and the use of iron weapons.
b. Assyria created a centralized govt, a postal service, an extensive library, and a system of highways.
World History
Selected Acheivements of Mesopotamia civilizations
The Chaldeans
1. The Chaldeans established the "New Babylonian" empire uner Nebuchadnezzar (605 - 538 BC)
a. They conquered Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine
b. They developed astrology, astronomy, advanced govt bureacracym and architectual acheivements such as the Hanging Gardens
World History
Selected Acheivements of Mesopotamia civilizations
1. Persians attempted to unify the entire Near East under one rule (500s BC)
a. established an international govt
b. Zoroastrianism was an ehtical religion based on concepts of good and evil
c. Persia failed to conquer the Greeks. eventually conquered by Alexander the Great (334-331 bc)
World History
Unique Contributions of smaller civilizations of the Near East
1. Phoenicians became the first explorers, traders, and colonizers of the ancient world; civilization reached its peak in 1000 BC
a. invented the first true alphabet
b. dominated Mediterranean commerce and exported manufactured glass and purple dye (royal purple)
World History
Unique Contributions of smaller civilizations of the Near East
1. Lydians occupied western Asia Minor (500s BC)
a. culture reached its zenith under King Croesus (golden king)
b. responsible for first coinage of money
World History
Unique Contributions of smaller civilizations of the Near East
1. Israelites established first lasting monotheism
a. Saul established the first kingdom in Palestine (c. 1030 - 1010 BC)
b. after death of Solomon (922 BC), the hebrews were divided into two kingdoms (Israel and Judah)
c. Disunity and conquest resulted in the destruction of Israel (722 BC) and Judah (586 BC)
d. the revolt of the israelites against rome resulted in destruction of Jerusalem (AD 70) and the forced dispersal of the Jews from Palestine (Jewish Diaspora, c. A.D. 132 - 135)
World History
Egypt established a civilization in the Nile Valley (3000 BC)
1. defensible borders generally spared egypt from the repeated political disruptions characteristic of mesopotamia.
2. egyptian history can be broadly outlined in specific time periods that reflect the changes taking place in egypt over a 3000 year period
3. significant aspects of egyptian civilization
a. life was dominated by concerns of the afterlife, religion, and the pharaoh
b. medical advances and specialized surgery were major contributions
c. invented a heiroglyphic writing system
d. commerce flourished throughout arabia, india, and part of africa
e. agriculture was the basis of the economy
f. monumental architecture reflected remarkable building and engineering feats, as well as mathematical precision
g. annual flooding of the nile was the basis for sustained economy, nile had an impact on all egyptian society.
World History
The Greek World
1. Greece is a land of mountains separated by deep valleys
2. Aegean background includes Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations
3. Greek civilization was dominated by Athens and Sparta
4. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) devastated both Sparta and Athens (and their Greek city-state allies)
5. Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) of Macedonia established the Hellenic Age (fusion of Greek culture with the east)
6. Contributions of the Greek World
World History
Greek History
Greece is a land of mountains separated by deep valleys
1. scarcity of good agricultural land encouraged seafaring in eastern greece.
2. southern mainland, with adequate ag resources, relied on farming
World History
Greek History
The Aegean background includes the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations
1. minoan civilazation of greece (c 4000 - 1400 bc) based its prosperity on extensive commerce
2. mycenaean civilization (c 2000 - 1150 bc) developed heavily fortified cities and based prosperity on trade and warfare.
a. dorians conquered the peloponnesus (peninsula of southern greece) and ushered a dark age characterized by violence and instability (c. 1150 - 800 bc)
b. ionia became the birthplace for the hellenic civilization
World History
Greek History
Greek Civilization was dominated by Athens and Sparta
1. Direct democracy was established in Athens (c. 507 BC)
2. The Age of Pericles (460 - 429 BC) represented the zenith of athenian society and height of its democracy
3. athens would become a world commericial center and cosmopolitan city
4. sparta developed a totalitarian and militaristic state dependent on slave labor to sustain its ag system
5. after defeating persians, conflict between athens and sparta dominated greek politics
World History
Greek History
The Peleponnesian War (431 - 404 BC) devastated both Athens and SParta (and their greek city state allies)
1. sparta was victorious but unable to unite the greek city states
2. greek individualism was a catalyst in the collapse of greek city state alliances
World History
Greek History
Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) of Macedonia established the Hellenic Age (the fusion of the greek culture with the east)
1. alexander conquered persia, asia minor, egypt and established a world empire
2. bureacracy replaced the polis (city state) as the form of govt
World History
Greek History
Contributions of the Greek World
1. founded most of the major philosophical schools, established systematic basis for the scientific method, and perfected advances in shipbuilding and commerce
2. established democracy and system of law to improve society
3. in architecture, sculpture, art, literature, and the performing arts, the greeks were dominant
How were ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia different?
in egypt nile flood was predictable
in mesopotamia floods were often unpredictable and destructive
egypts natural barriers (desert and sea) as well as its isolation from other civilizations greatly hindered foreign invaders
mesopotamia's flat plains invited invasion
egypt remained a distinct politcal entity
mesopotamia had a succession of power (sumeria, babylonia, assyrians, persia, etc)
common characteristic of mesopotamia and egypt
bureacratic govt. pharoah of egypt and kings of mesopotamia ruled through privileged class of nobles and priests.
which aegean civilizations developed a flourishing culture as a direct result of trade and commerce?
mycenaens, also true of crete and troy
sumerians trade and commerce
tigris and euphrates as well as areas surrounding the persian gulf
assyrian empire trade and commerce
empire origniated in highland region of the upper tigris river but grew to encompass the are of the fertile crescent
greatest seafaring culture of the ancient civilzed world developed extensive trade networks throughout the mediterannean and set up distant trade networks and trading colonies such as tyre and sidon
warrior nation who terrorized people
Hindu caste system
idea originated in india in 1500 bc as part of the teachings of hinduism. caste system divided people into four distinct and inflexible groups. priests and teachers, rulers and warriors, merchants and artisans, and the lowest caste peasants and servants. persons who did not belong to any group were the untouchables. members of one caste could not marry or even eat with memebers of another caste. caste system was outlawed in india in 1950.
World History
THe ROman World
1. The Roman Republic (509-27 BC) started after Etruscan control was overthrown
2. The Roman Empire lasted for five centuries.
3. Roman contributions to the western world
World History
The Roman World
The Roman Republic (509-27 BC) started after Etruscan control was overthrown
1. Roman society was divided into the patricians (propertied class), plebians (main body of roman citizens), and slaves
2. Roman govt was bases on consuls, the senate, and the centurial assembly
3. roman army became the most powerful military organization in the world
4. after the punic wars with carthage (146 bc) rome emerged as the dominant power in the mediterranean.
a.rome incorporated greek culture into its empire
b. rome expansion resulted in a world republic
5. economic and political decline and repeated civil wars ravaged the roman republic
a. caesar was assassinated in 44 bc
b. augustus became the first emperor of the roman empire 27 bc
World History
The Roman Empire
The Roman Empire lasted for five centuries
1. The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) was two centureies without a major was (27 bc - ad 180)
2. by the end of the second century, ad rome was in economic and political decline, which weakened the empire
3. constantine attempted to stem the tide
a. the empire split into the western and eastern roman empires
b. barbarian invasions by the goths, vandals, and huns devastated rome and it fell in ad 476
c. the eastern roman empire at constantinople remained intact; byzantium survived until 1453
4. causes for the fall of rome
a. immediate cause was a continuous barbaric invasion
b. internatal factors included politcal instability, decreasing farm production, inflation, excessive taxation, and the decline of the military, including the use of mercenaries.
c. the rise of christianity divided the empire.
World History
The Roman Empire
roman contributions to the western world
1. greatest was in the field of law
2. revolutionized building construction, engineering, and road construction (200,000 miles of roads)
3. monumental architecture (colosseum, aqueducts)
4. continued greek tradition in literature, art, sculpture, and the humanities.
World History
The Rise of Christianity
1. Basic Doctrines
2. Reasons for the spread of Christianity (the rome period)
World History
The Rise of Christianity
Basic Doctrines
1. Christianity began with the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (compassion for the poor and downtrodden)
2. Emphasized the Holy Bible as the word of God, the sacrements as the instruments of god's grace, and the importance of moral life for salvation.
3. Paul the Apostle was responsible for the spread of Christian theology and the resulting response from the Roman Empire
4. St. Augustine (A.D. 354-430) became the first great christian philosopher; wrote confessions and city of god
World History
The Rise of Christianity
Reasons for the spread of Christianity (the Rome Period)
1. individual conviction in one's belief (solidarity) had grown during the Roman persecution period.
2. efficiency and organization of the early church administration
3. doctrines that stressed equality and immortality
4. conversion of constantine to christianity (AD 313)
5. establishment of christianity as the official Roman religion (AD 380)
6. establishment of the supremacy of the pope at the time imperial Rome was disintegrating
World History
The Early Byzantine Civilization
1. Constantine established a "New Rome" at Constantinople AD 330
2. Reasons for the Byzantine Empire's success (empire lasted for 1000 years)
3. reasons for the decline of the Byzantine Empire
4. Acheivements of the Byzantine Empire
World History
THe Early Byzantine Civilization
Constantinople established a "New Rome" at Constantinople in AD 330
1. Constantinople was strategically located, had excellent defensable borders, and was a crossroads of world trade
2. With the fall of Rome (476 BC) the Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire
World History
The Early Byzantine Civilization
Reasons for the Byzantine Empire's success (it lasted 1000 years)
1. economic prosperity was based on domination of commercial trade routes controlled by Constantinople and a monopoly of the silk trade.
2. Byzantines made excellent use of diplomacy to avoid invasions and they were geographically distant from the tribes who sacked Rome.
3. Codification of Roman law by Justinian (AD 528 - 565) strengthened bureacracy
4. Constantinople was a fortress city with excellent defensible borders
World History
The Early Byzantine Civilization
Reasons for the Decline of the Byzantine Empire
1. geographic proximity to the Arabs, Slavs, and Seljuk Turks, all whom were becoming more powerful
2. loss of commericial dominance over the Italians
3. religious controversy with the West and a subsequent split with the Roman Catholic Church
4. sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusades
5. the fall of Constantinople (1453) marked the end of the Byzanting Empire
World History
The Early Byzantine Civilization
Acheivements of the Byzantine Empire
1. preserved the heritage of Greco-Roman civilization while the west was culturally stagnant
2. spread civilization to all of eastern Europe
3. preserved the Eastern orthodox church
4. economic strength was based on the stability of its money economy
World History
The Rise of Islam
The Muslim Empire and The Rise of Islam
1. based on the teachings of Mohammed (AS 570 -632)
a. spread of Islam started in 7th Century AD
b. Koran became center of Islamic moral and ethical conduct
c. Mohammad established a theocracy based on Islamic law
2. Muslim empire was ruled by Arab caliphs
a. Arabs conquered much of Byzantine Empire and Persian empires, including North Africa, Spain
1. Battle of Tours (AD 732) resulted in Franks halting Moslem expansion in Europe
2. Moslem Spain lasted from AD 711 to 1031
3. The Muslim EMpire divided
a Abbassides overthrew Umayyads - capitol moved to Bagdad
b. Iberian and North African muslims broke with the Bagdads control
4. Turkes assumed leadership of the Muslim world
a. Seljuks fought the crusaders and regained lost land
b. Mongols invaded the eastern Muslim empire
c. Ottoman Empire expanded territory and lasted for many centuries
d. Constantinople was the center of the Ottoman Empire
World History
The Rise of Islam
Islamic Civilization
1. Govt and religion developed the framework for prosperity
a. Arabs preserved cultures of the people they conquered
b. religious pilgrimages led to the spread of new ideas
c. caliphs improved farming methods and crop yields
d. trade and commerce led to a high standard of living in cities
e. military expansion also served as a vehicle for cultural exchange between Arab and western worlds
2. Trade spread Islamic culture
a. many factors helped trade including no taxation and strong banking practices
b. muslim trade spread culture to foreign lands
c. Ibn Batua spread Islamic culture by traveling widely
3. Science and the arts flourished under Muslim rule
a. advanced words in medicine, astronomy, and math
b. architecture and literature flourished
c. poetry and philosopohy were common themese in Islamic books
World History
The Early Middle Ages
1. The destruction of Rome resulted in a period of decline (500-8000 the Dark Ages)
2. The Franks became the dominant Germanic tribe.
3.The Carolingians replaced the Franks as legitimate rulers
4. The Viking (Norse) invasions pillaged the coasts of Europe in the eighth century
5. Society in the Middle Ages was based on the fuedal system
World Histoy
Early Middle Ages
THe Franks became the dominant Germanic tribe
1. Clovis (481 -511) was converted to Christianity
2. Domestic fueds and vivil war broke out among the Merovingians (561)
a. political power shifted away from the monarch
b. charles martel halted the Moslem advance into Europe at the Battle of Tours (732), which had a lastin impact on the development of western civilization
World History
Early Middle Ages
The Carolingians replaced the Franks as legitimate rulers
1. Pepin the Short (747-768) appointed by the Pope as king, established papal states on former Byzantine land
2. Charlemagne (768-814) dominated the political structure of the early middle ages
a. crowned "emperor of the romans" by pope leo in 800 and had a major impact on the history of europe
b. revived concept of holy roman empire and established authority over secular rulers.
c. empire incluided most of the former Roman Empire and additional Germanic lands between the Rhine and Elbe Rivers
d. The Carolingian Renaissance resulted in the establishment of a palace academy with a prescribed academic curriculum
3. The Frankish system of inheritance hastened the dissolution of the Frankish Empire.
a. The Tready of Verdun (843) divided Charlemagne's empire among his three grandsons
b. Carolingian rule ended in the tenth century because of the decline of central authority and the invasions of the Scandanavian tribes
World Histoy
Early Middle Ages
THe Viking (Norse) invasions pillaged the coasts of Europe in the eight century
1. The Danes were responsible for the major invasions of England
2. Alfred the Great (871-99) established the English Kingdom after stemming the Danish invasions
3. In France, the Carolingian king was forced to cede Normandy to the Vikings
World History
Early Middle Ages
Society in the Middle Ages was based on the feudal system
1. under feudalism, polictical authority was dominated by land nobility
a. feudal contract provided land in exchange for personal services to the king
b. law of primogeniture gave all property to eldest son.
c. church enjoyed a favorable position under feudalism and became and major landholder.
2. Manorialism was the agricultural organization and economic foundation of feudalism
a. commerce was virtually non existent; a purely ag economy prevailed
b. lord of the manor exercised full political, judicial, and economic control over the manor including serfs
World History
The Later Middle Ages
(c. 100- - 1500)
1. The rise of feudal monarchs resulted in the development of the nation states of France.
2. The Norman Conquest has a profound impact on the development of the culture, language, and judicial system of England.
3. Spain and Portugal during the later Middle Ages
4. The Holy Roman Empire during the late middle ages
5. Characteristics of medieval civilizations during the late middle ages.
6. Historical interpretations of the Middle Ages.
World History
The Later Middle Ages
The rise of feudal monarchs resulted in the development of the nation-states of France.
1. Hugh Capet (987-96) established Capetian rule in France that lasted 300 years.
2. By the early thirteenth century, royal authority had expanded and France had become a European power.
3. Conflicts with the pope over the extent of religious rule resulted in an increase in the authority of the monarch.
4. The Hundred Year war (1337-1453) between England and France resulted in the English being driven out of most of France.
World History
The Later Middle Ages
THe Norman Conquest had a profound impact on the development of the culture, language, and judicial system of England.
1. The Battle of Hastings (1066) ended Anglo Saxton rule in England.
2. By the twelfth century, English common law was firmly established.
3. The Magna Carta (1215) limited the power of the king. It is the most important document in English constitutional law.
4. By fourteenth century, English Parliament was firmly established.
a. parliament gained power at expense of the king.
b. House of Lords (titled nobility) and the House of Commons (gentry and middle classes) composed Parliament.
5. The War of Roses (1455-85) was fought over succession of the throne.
a. House of Lancaster crushed the House of York.
b. Henry VII established the Tudor dynasty in England
The Magna Carta (1215)
limited the power of the king. most important document in English constitutional law.
World History
The Later Middle Ages
Spain and Portugal
1. The Reconquista reestablished Christian control over Moslem Spain in 1492.
a. Spanish state was marked by strong, absolutist rule.
b. monarch instituted inquisitions and also expelled the Jews.
World History
THe Later Middle Ages
The Holy Roman Empire
1. pope was dominant in religious matters and the king in secular matters.
a. Germany consisted of kingdoms, dukedoms, and smaller princely states.
b. Frederick Barbarossa (1152-90) called the union of Germany and Italy the holy roman empire; he stated that the king's authority was higher than that of the popes.
2. A continuing power struggle with the pope resulted in the further decentralization of the Germanic states.
3. Conflict between the papacy and the secular ruler during the late middle ages.
a. papacy was dominated by a series of holy roman emperors.
b. under pope leo IX (1049-54) the independency of papacy was established.
World History
The Later Middle Ages
Characteristics of medieval civilization during the late Middle Ages.
1. Society was based on strict class division: CLergy and nobility were the privileged class, peasants and artisans were the work forces, and serfs were tied to the land.
2. The decline of feudalism and manorialism was evident by the 12th century and completed by the 16th
3. commercial revival led to the rise of towns.
a. true middle class emerged
b. economic activities in towns were supervised by guild system (merchant and craft guilds)
c. Mediterranean commerce was dominated by Venetians and Genoans.
d. Crusades led to revival of international trade; money became primary unit of exchange.
4. Education stressed the liberal arts.
a. Theology considered queen of sciences
b universities created in paris, oxford, cambridge during 11th and 12th centuries
c. latin was language of intellectual europe; vernacular was used by 12th century
5. Philosophy (scholasticism) dealt with the consistency of faith and reason; realism and nominalism were rival points of view.
a. Realism (Plato's view): Reality consists of ideas (universals) that exist in the mind, independent of sensory powers of perception.
b. Nominalism (Universals) are just symbols for names for objects; only perceived objects are real, and they exist independent of the mind.
6. Architecture was dominated by Romanesque (11th to 12th) an Gothic (13th to 15th) styles.
World History
The Later Middle Ages
Historical Interpretations of the MIddle Ages
1. period to transition between ancient and modern europe.
2. were unique with distinctive culture.
World History
The Renaissance (c. 1350 - 1600)
1. The Renaissance began in Italy during the 14th century.
2. literature and philosophy reflected the new secular trend.
3. Renaissance spread throughout Europe.
4. General characteristics of the Renaissance.
World HIstory
The Renaissance
Began in Italy in during 14th century
1. Conflicts between papacy and Holy Roman Empire in 13th and 14th resulted in regional autonomy fro the Italian city-states.
2. heritage of greek and roman civilizations contributed to the development of the Italian Renaissance.
3. Crusades focused attention eastward (Greece and Near East)
4. By 14th century, the move toward secularization was predominant.
World History
The Renaissance
Literature and philosophy reflected new secular trends.
1. Humanism stresses the importance of the individual.
2. Neoplatonism replaced Scholasticism as the the dominant philosophy.
3. Machiavelli's The Prince stresses that "the ends justify the means" as a political philosophy
4. influence of the "classical" arts was strong and a new emphasis was placed on science.
World History
The Renaissance
The Renaissance spread throughout Europe
1. Renaissance of northern Europe emphasized the teachings of Christianity and placed less reliance on humanism.
2. French Renaissance reflected a democratic realism.
3. English Renaissance did not flower until under Elizabethan age.
World History
The Renaissance
General characteristics of the Renaissance
1. emphasis on man rather than god
2. reawakening or rebirth of classical models
3. ideal of universal man was widely held
World History
THe Reformation
1. Protestant Reformation and the development of Western civilization
2. Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation) attempted to halt the spread of Protestantism.
3. Effects of the Reformation
World History
The Reformation
Protestant Reformation and the development of western civilization
1. Reasons for reformation
a. dissatisfaction with church ritual and latin overtones
b. humanism emphasized man's needs and concerns
c. printing press allowed mass communication
2. Also, Martin Luther (1483 -1546) and the right of the pope to grant indulgences was a primary cause
a. Luther's Ninety-five Theses served as a catalyst in starting the Reformation
b. Lutheranism allowed for state church system controlled by individual German princes
c. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) officially recognized Lutheranism but allowed Catholic princes to support Catholicism
3. Calvinism made Protestantism a national movement
a. doctrine of predestination was central to Calvanistic belief
b. calvanism became revolutionary anti-catholic movement
4. Act of Supremacy (1534) marked the beginning of the English Reformation
a. king of england became the head of the church
b. pope's refusal to annul marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon initiated the break
c. Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) firmly established Protestantism in England and established Anglican church
World History
The Reformation
THe Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation) attempted to halt the spread of Protestantism
1. Jesuits (society of jesus) became the official Catholic response to the Reformation; Jesuits also initiated missionary and educational endeavors.
2. council of trent (1545-63) defined the doctrines of Catholicism and reinforced papal authority
World History
The Reformation
Effects of Reformation
1. medieval political unity of Europe was replaced by spirit of modern nationalism
2. authority of the state was strengthened
3. middle class was strengthened
4. calvinism gave capitalism its psychological base.
5. religious wars reflected the fervor of the times.
World HIstory
16th & 17th Century Religious and Dynastic Wars
1. Spain and the Holy Roman Empire
2. France as a world power in the 16th century
3. England emerged as a dominant world power in the 17th century
4. The Thirty Years War (1618-48) marked the culmination of religious and political wars in Europe.
5. The intellectual development of the early modern period
World History
16th and 17th Century Religious and Dynastic wars
Spain and the holy roman empire
1. Spain was the leading nation in 16th century europe.
2. Charles V in 1556 abdicated and divided the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburg dynasties
3. The defeat of the spanish armada (1588) ended Spanish attempts to invade England.
a. defeat marked the beginning of Spain's decline in Europe
b. England became a dominant sea power
c. ensure success if Dutch revolt against spanish rule
World History
16th and 17th century religious and dynastic wars
France as a world power in the 16th century
1. French religious wars (1562-98) were fought between catholics and huegenots for the control of france
2. Henry IV (1589-1610), the first bourbon ruler, reestablished royal authority
3. The Edict of Nantes (1598) gave the huegenots political and religious freedom
World History
16th and 17th century religious and dynastic wars
england emerged as a dominant world power in 17th century
1. Henry VIII ((1509-47) promoted the concept of a balanced Europe as England gained power in foreign affairs
2. Under Elizabeth I (1558-1603) england emerged as a major european power
3. james I (1603-25) began the colonization of North America in the 17th century
4. charles I (1625-49) failed to achieve internal stability; the Puritan revolution (1642-49) marked civil strife in england
World HIstory
16th and 17th century religious and dynastic wars
The Thirty Years War (1618-48) marked the culmination of religious and political wars in europe
1. the war involved most major european powers and resulted in the devastation of germany
2. peace of westphalia (1648) provided new political boundaries and established calvinism as a recognized religion
a. germany was divided into protestant and catholic areas
b. holy roman empire was an empty shell of 300 autonomous states
c. dutch independence was recognized
3. france replaced spain as the leading nation in europe
World History
16th and 17th century religious and dynastic wars
the intellectual development of the early modern period
1. the scientific revolution was founded on the work of copernicus, galileo, an newton
2. the culture of the period was characterized by baroque style
World History
European Absolutism and Power Politics
concept of absolutism
1. The philosophy of absolutism was based on the concept of total obedience to the sovereign and promoted the concept of the divine right of kings
World History
European absolutism and power politics
absolutism in france resulted in the restoration of royal power
1. Cardinal richelieu was the architect of absolutist politics
2. louis XIV (1643-1715) was the quintessential example of absolutism
a. palace of versailles was a symbol of classic age of france
b. louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes
c. in foreign policy loius XIV attempted to end Hapsburg encirclement and secure natural boundaries for france
d. the french suffered territorial and political losses after being defeated by the english
World History
European absolutism and power politics
The failure of absolutism in England
1. power struggle between parliament and the crown dominated
2. english civil war (1642-49) was fought over religious and constitutional issues; royalists lost political power
3. during commonwealth period (1649-60) england became a republic
a. oliver cronwell rules as a dictator and abolished the monarchy and the house of the lords
b. shortly after death of cromwell monarchy was restored (1658)
4. restoration era (1660-88) stuart rule was restored, anglican church regained power and puritanism was repressed
5. glorious revolution (1688-89) established constitutional monarchy and supremacy of parliament
World History
european absolutism and power politics
absolutism in russia began with ivan the terrible
1. romanov dynasty (1613) provided a hereditary link to monarchy until 1917
2. peter the great (1660-1725) made power of the czar absolute
a. peter attempted to westernize russia
b. otained a window on the sea by fighting a successful war with sweden but failed in attempts to garner territory on the black sea from the ottoman turks
World history
european absolutism and power politics
culture in the age of absolutism
1. baroque style was dominant in architecture, sculpture, painting, music
2. neoclassicism developed in literature
3. scientific revolution resulted in the invention of the thermostat, barometer, and reflecting telescope and microscope as well as new ideas in science (newton) and philosophy (locke)
World History
age of enlightenment
philosophy influence by age of reason
1. christianity and church dogma were questioned
2. proper function of govt was defined by voltaire, montesqueiu, locke, and rosseau. ideas led to philosophical bases for american and french revolutions
3. in economics, doctrine of laissez faire stood in opposition to regulated trade
4. adam smith wrote wealth of nations and advocated manufacturing as the true source of the nation's wealth
world history
age of enlightenment
culture of 18th century dominated by neoclassicism
1. attempt to revive the classic style and form of greece and rome
2. in literature, the novel was the outcome; in architecture, rococo style was dominant
3. in music, haydn, mozart, and beethoven emphasized the classical eras formal symmetrical structure, simple rhythms, and tuneful melodies
world history
the french revolution and napeleon
background to the french revolution
1. an inequitable class structure was the basic cause of the revolution
2. disorganized legal system and no representative assembly
3. enlightenment philosophy influenced the middle class
4. bankruptcy of french treasury was immediate cause of revolution
a. nobility resisted expanded taxation plans
b. failure of monarchy led to violent revolution
5. declaration of rights of man and citizen defined enlightenment concepts of national law and the sovereignty of the people
6. first french republic (1792-1804) was marked by the violence of the reign of terror (1793-94) and the rise of napolean
World History
THe French Revolution and Napoleon
Napolean and the First Empire (804-15)
1. Domestic reforms resulted in a more efficient govt.
a. no tax exemptions were allowed for lineage, and govt promotion was based on ability
b. the code of napoleon modernized french law (equality before the law)
2. international relations placed france against europe
a. napoleon won territory from the holy roman empire and forced spain to cede the louisianna territory to france
b. by 1807, the holy roman empire was disbanded as france gained territory from prussia and poland
c. the continental system was a failed french attempt to close the continent to british trade in hopes of destroying the british economy
d. napoleon's disastrous invasion of russia marked the beginning of the end for napoleon
e. the battle of waterloo 91815) ended in defeat for napoleon and ended the french empire. napoleon was permanently exiled to st. helena
World HIstory
reaction, romaticism, and revolution
congress of vienna (1815) attempted to balance the powerful states of europe
1. congress ignored the legitimacy of the nationalistic aspirations of the european peoples
2. enforcement of the settlement was predicated on international agreements designed to preserve the status quo
3. the congress of verona (822) ended the congress system and allowed european powers to be guided by self interest
world history
reaction, romanticism, and revolution
romanticism raised basic questions about the nature of truth
1. unlike enlightenment, romanticism encouraged gothic revival and rejected limitations of neoclassicism
2. politically, reinforced nationalistic philosophy and pursued policy of self determination
world history
reaction, romanticism, and revolution
revolutionary movements of 1820, 30, and 48 resulted in territorial changes, liberal political reforms, and the abolition of serfdom
1. revolutions of 1848 were precursor to future class warfare issues in europe
2. consequence was emergent voice of militant socialism. would have profound effect on political structure of europe
world history
impact of industrial revolution on europe
causes of industrial revolution
1. scientific revolution brought new mechanical devices
2. availability of investment capital and rise of middle class provided economic base
3. conditions in england favored industrialization
a. cotton textile industry was well established
b. britain was a colonial and maritime power and was able to easily ship products
c. coal, iron, and a plentiful supply of cheap labor were available
world history
impact of industrial revolution on europe
the results of the industrial revolution
1. dramatic increase in productivity and rise of factory system
2. demographic changes (from rural to urban centers)
3. division of society into define classes (propertied and nonpropertied)
4. development of modern capitalism (profits linked to the manufacturing of products)
world history
impact of industrial revolution on europe
intellectual response to industrial revolution
1. classical economists advanced theory of laissez faire (limited govt intervention in business affairs)
2. thomas malfus theorized population growth would far outstrip food production
3. revolutionary socialism of Karl Marx advocated a violent overthrow of present economic system
a. history was seen as a class struggle between expoliters and the exploited
b. communist manifesto written by marx and engels advances theories of modern scientific socialism
world history
the lands and peoples of africa
topography of africa mainly desert and savannah
1. african continent divided into many ecological regions
2. trade and commerce connected to geographical potential of area
3. large populations flourished in savanna and were primarily agrarian
world history
lands and people of africa
land of geographical variety
1. heavy rains influenced life in forests
2. great states developed among the isolated forest people
3. four rivers (nile, congo, niger, and zambizi) were important in economic history
4. civilizations developed in rift valley
5. kush was an important iron working center
world history
lands and people of africa
ancient africans made advances in societies and culture
1. lineage is basis of tribal organization
2. religion, politics, and law became focus of culture
3. art and sculpture emphasized
world history
lands and people of africa
african civilizations south of sahara
1. famous empires grew in the west african savanna: ghana, mali, songhai
2. east african coast saw development of city-states
a. east african civilization based on international trade and seaport cities
b. swahili culture developed own language and thrived in city states
c. portuguese destroyed much of east african trade after 1500
3. kingdom of zimbabwe developed in the interior
a. grew from an iron working settlement
b. huge stone structures constructed
c. economy based on gold trade
4 islam stimulated new states of west africa and spread islamic culture and religion
5. forest states developed strong govt
a. benin grew wealth and powerful until european contact threatened society
b. slave trade produced wealth for the cities and terror in the interior
c. trade, taxes, and powerful govt resulted in asante becoming a strong state
world history
native americans and early cultures in america
early cultures in n.a.
1.american indian culture developed over many centuries
a. first originated from asia
b ag changed some indian cultures from nomadic to faming community
2. N.A. indians were quite skilled
a. hopewell people were farmers and flourished in ohio and mississippi valleys
b. mississippian cultured developed in 00 and built lg religious mound structures
c. anasazi culture 800-1300 developed in southwest and were builders and farmers
d. pueblos inhabited southwest and built adobe cities
world history
native american and early cultures in N.A.
early cultures in mesoamerica
1. olmec (1200 - 400 bc) developed first civilizations in mesoamerica (mexico, central america, and wester coast of south america)
a. developed ag community and first calendar in america
2. Mayas (250-900 ad) achieved complex civilization
a. cities were trade and religious center
b. excelled in math, science, astronomy, and engineering (pyramid building)
3. aztecs (1200-1500ad) conquered much of central mexico
a. toltecs preceded aztecs
b, built great city (tenochtitlan)l and ruled an empire
c. religion and war dominated life
4. incas (1200-1500 ad) controlled vast empire in south america
a. tiahuanaco culture developed in andes mountains and incas unified extensive empire
b. sophisticated record keeping system and skilled craftsmen
world history
early history of india
india under muslim rule
1. muslims controlled india for centuries
a. muslim invaders came into india in 11th and 12th and created kingdoms in the north
b. delhi sultanate was most powerful and developed art and architecture
2. hindus lives and worked under muslim rule
a. most were self sufficient farmers
b. caste system dominated life
c. believed in supreme being (brahman) and believed in reincarnation
3. mughuls united and ruled most of india
a. after babur invaded india, akbar became greatest mughul ruler
b. mughuls were great builders (taj mahal)
c. mughul empire declined quickly and by 1750 empire fallen
world history
early history of china
china from sungs through manchus
1. chinese civilization continued under sungs from 960 ad - 1279
a. chinese empire lost territory after fall of tang
b. advances in education, art, and science
2. importance of city life in sung empire
a. foreign trade enabled populations to grow and cities to become sophisticated
b. family focus of life
3. mongols ruled china
a. genghis khan united nomadic peoples and conquered china
b. kublai khan became emperor
c. marco polo, italian explorer, opened door to trade with china and described the mongol empire
4. chinese culture was maintained by ming and manchu dynasties
a. ming (native chinese) ousted mongols
b. ming limited contact with west
c. manchus overran china and followed a policy of isolationism, weakening china
5. teachings of confucious influenced chinese culture
a. wanted to improve society
b. taught certain virtues were guidelines to happy life
world history
early history of japan
the emergence of japan
1. japans geography influenced history
a culture reflects reverence for nature
b. mountains, forests, and coastal areas determined cultural growth
2. early japanese civilization borrowed from china
a. archeology has revealed japan's ancient past
b. japanese culture developed during heian era
c. poetic form such as haiku developed and literature spread
3. feudalism and a samurai warrior class developed
a. three periods of feudal govt. - kamakura, ashikaga, and tokugawa
b. shogun was actual ruler; emperors were figureheads
c. nobles struggles fro power during ashikaga shogunate
d. arts flourished
e. central govt grew strong during tokugawa era
f. old samurai class and feudal way of life declined resulting in major political and social changes
4. accomplishments of early japanese
a. own language and sophisticated system of writing
b. developed literature and poetry, shinto religion, and placed great emphasis on love of nature, beauty, and good manners
California History
Prehistoric Period
first humans to enter North America crossing the Bering Strait land bridge at the end of the Pleistocene Period, or the last Ice Age, approx 15000 to 30,000 years ago
1. migrated south from Alaska and populated north and south america
2. entered ca approx 15000 years ago; evidence from early man archaeological site at calico could push date back to 50,000
California history
prehistoric period
native americans of ca
general characteristics prior to european contact
a.spoke great diversity of dialects
b. represented largest concentration of indians in N.A.
c. had similar physical traits and features
d. groups showed general uniformity in economy, material goods, religious practices, and social organization
f. primarily hunter gatherer societies
g. dwellings reflected groups climatic and geographic locations: frame and plank houses in north, brush shelters in the southern deserts and earth houses along coastal areas
g. local subsistence based on available resources
h. crafts limited: basket making generally universal : twined in north, coiled in south
i. groups not generally warlike and weapons not sophisticated. uses atlatl, bow and arrow, obsidian points, hunting blades, spears, harpoons, clubs, and throwing sticks. hunting technology linked to geographic factors. balsa and raft type boats were used in south, and plank canoes were used in the north
2. shared heritage of various tribes
a. lineage was traced on the paternal side
b. native tobacco and jimsonweed were widely used in ceremonial activities
c. sweathouses were used (men)
d. people played functional musical instruments and sang and danced
e. groups religion were similar in myths, creation stories, shamanism, and the influence of nature
f. ceremonies dealt with birth, death, puberty, marriage, hunting, and so on
g. cultures integrated with and reflected environment; nature provided for them
h. fables dealt with animals and other natural phenomena of the region
i. roles were sex differentiated. men hunted and fished. women gathered food and materials and killed small game
j. oral story tradition was used by all ca indians
california history
prehistoric period
native americans of ca
shared heritage of various tribes
a. lineage was traced on the paternal side
b. native tobacco and jimsonweed were widely used in ceremonial activities
c. sweathouses were used (men)
d. people played functional musical instruments and sang and danced
e. groups religion were similar in myths, creation stories, shamanism, and the influence of nature
f. ceremonies dealt with birth, death, puberty, marriage, hunting, and so on
g. cultures integrated with and reflected environment; nature provided for them
h. fables dealt with animals and other natural phenomena of the region
i. roles were sex differentiated. men hunted and fished. women gathered food and materials and killed small game
j. oral story tradition was used by all ca indians
california history
prehistoric period
native americans ca
geographic factors isolated many tribes. desert and mountain barriers restricted contact
1. northern ca tribes included yurok, hupa, modoc, and pomo
2. central ca tribes included maidu and miwok
2. coastal tribes included miwok, esselen, and chumash
4. desert tribes included mojave and serrano
5. sierra nevada tribes included miwok and mono
california history
prehistoric period
native americans of ca
material belongings were similar
1. body garments and dress
2. subsistence on ag implements: mortar and pestle, metate, grinding slab, and digging sticks
3. houses (earth, bark, plank, and thatch and ceremonial houses (sweat, dance, menstrual)
4. weapons and tools: knife, adz, ax, maul, scraper, awl, and drill
5. textiles: bags, wallets, beadwork, and other designs
6. receptacles: baskets, pottery, wood, an stone bowls
7. musical instruments: drum, rattle, flute, rasp, and bow
8.money: clam, disks, and olivella shells
california history
spanish conquest
1. search for 7 cities of cibola by cortez in 1530's resulted in spanish exploration of the baja peninsula
2. cabrillo discovered san diego bay, the sb islands, point conception, and point reyes (1542-43_
3. drake, english explorer, sailed up ca coast in 1579 and claimed area for england
4. russian excursions along the northern american coast (1800s) resulted in renewed spanish efforts to colonize ca
5. spanish established ca missions
ca history
spanish conquest
search for 7 cities of cibola by cortez resulted in spanish exploration of baja peninsula
1. spain was interested in conquest and wealth
2. exploration centered on search for island inhabited by amazon like women who used gold weapons
ca history
spanish conquest
cabrillo discovered san diego bay, sb islands, point conception, and point reyes
1. searched for water passage between pacific and atlantic oceans
2. future voyages traveled entire coast of ca
ca history
spanish conquest
drake, sailed up ca coast and claimed area for england
1. threat from england compelled spain to colonize ca
2. spanish explorations discovered safe harbors at monterey and sf
3. for next 100 years, spanish colonization of ca was minimal
ca history
spanish conquest
russian excursions along na coast reulted in renewed spanish efforts to colonize ca
1. russian fur interests in alaska pushed south
2. established fort ross 80 miles n of sf bay in 1812 as a trading post
3. american govt viewed russian exploration of ca coast as threat
a. monroe doctrine (1823) restricted european colonization of americas
b. spanish reacted to potential russian, british, and american presence by establishing presidios (military forts) and pueblos (sm settlements) in valleys around sf bay
ca history
spanish conquest
spanish established ca missions
1. jesuits established five permanent settlements in baja in early 1700s
2. franciscan friars established 21 spanish missions along ca coast from san diego to sonoma ( one days journey apart at completion in 1823)
a. purpose was to convert indians to christianity, establish cultural and ag centers, and populate alta ca for spain. both sword and cross were used to subdue indians
3. father serra is credited with development of the mission system. lasting contributions were controversial
4. positive aspects of mission system
a. spread christianity
b. colonized ca
c. spread cultural and technological advances of spain
5. negative
a. dehumanization of indians
b. high infant mortality and suicide rates among indians
c. forced labor and virtual slave like conditions
d. indian self sufficiency never developed.
6. in about 1830 the mission system began secularization process. by 1836 most mission property was privately owned
ca history
mexican rule in ca
1. after mexican independence from spain in 1822, ca residents exerted increased control in local political matters
2. land grant system and ranchos fueled independent action
3. mexican govt failed in attempts to dominate ca
4. by 1845, californios (provincial ca) expelled last of mexican governors
5. american trappers (jedediah smith) explorers (kit carson and joseph walker), and a variety of wagon masters opened ca to american settlement
ca histoy
ca independence from mexico
migrations of american pioneer families in 1840s swelled american population in ca
1. american poineers settle in san joaquin and sac valleys
2. increase demand that ca become part of us
ca history
independence from mexico
president polk indirectly supported annexation of ca
1. john c fremont, possibly acting on presidential orders, raised us flag near monterey, then retreated from the area
2. war was declared on mexico in 1846 (mexican war)
a. bear flag revolt prematurely captured ca
b. commander sloat captured monterey bay and claimed area for us
c. general stockton captured LA, governor pico and general castro retook area for mexico
d. stockton and kearney defeated pico and raised american flag over la in 1847
3. treaty if guadalupe hidalgo in 1848 transfered ca from mexican to american control
ca history
gold discovered
1. discovery of gold by james w marshall in 1848 changed political, social, and economic history of state
a. gold fever became natural phenomenon; ca settle population increased from 15000 in 1847 to 380,000 in 1860
b. population growth led to statehood (31 state)
2. compromise of 1850 allowed ca to be a free state
a. slavery was prohibited which upset balance of free and slave states
b. ca statehood became background issue for civil war
ca history
ca from civil war to turn of century
1. completion of transcontinental railroad in 1869 made dream of manifest destiny come true
2. economic depression hit in 1870s cycle of boom and bust was begun
3. open hostility toward chinese erupted
4. ca land boom of 1880s swelled population again
ca history
ca from civil war to turn of century
transcontinental railroad made manifest destiny come true
1. central pacific met union pacific at promontory utah. immigrant labor was used. chinese on central pacific and irish on union pacific
2. big four (hopkins, crocker, huntington, and stanford) controlled railroad industry and most of ca politcal scene
ca history
ca from civil war to turn of century
economic depression in 1870's; cycle of boom and bust begun
1. depression characterized by low wages, high unemployment, railroad abuses (unfair prices and rebates), and the restriction of water rights by land monopolies
2. collapse of bank of ca in 1875 (and other financial institutions) further weakened ca economy
ca history
ca from civil war to turn of century
open hostility toward chinese
1. they were blamed for most economic problems (backlash from mining and railroad frontier)
2. chinese exclusion act was passed in congress in 1882
3. by 1877, politicians, newspapers, an citizens urged open agitation the chinese in california
4. the workingmen's party was established. it was nativist, anti-chinese, and anti-big business
a. demanded constitutional convention and populist type reforms
b. ca constitution (1879) codified anti chinese legislation