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176 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Transisters and ____ circcuits were responsible for making electronic devices smaller and less expensive.
Integrated
The ___ revolution was fueled by technologies such as computers and the internet.
digital
A computer ___ is a group of computers linked together to share data and resources.
network
The process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, or video into data that can be processed by a computer is called ___.
digitization
A(n) ____ is one or more collaborative documents, such as an encyclopedia, posted on the Web, that can be viewed and changed by the public.
Wiki
A computer is a digital device that processes data according to a series of ___ instructions.
stored
Computer data is temporarily stored in ___ but is usually transferred to ___ where it can be left on a more permanent basis.
memory, storage
___ computers are available in desktop and portable models.
personal
A digital device, such as a computer, is called a(n) ___ when it requests data from a server.
client
A(n) ___ is a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls.
microcontroller
Data ___ refers to the format in which data is stored, processed, and transformed.
representation
Digital devices often use the ___ number system to represent numeric data.
binary
Most computers use Unicode or Extended ____ code to represent character data.
ASCII
KB is the abbreviation for ___.
Kilobyte
Integrated circuits are fabricated from ___ materials that have properties of a conductor and an insulator.
semiconducting
A(n) ___ converts all of the source code instructions into object code, which becomes a new file containing __ code.
compiler, object
A microprocessor is hard-wired to perform a set of activities called a(n) ___ set.
instruction
A machine language instruction has two parts: a(n) __ code and an operand.
op
The ALU in your computer's microprocessor holds data in ___.
registers
The microprocessor's control unit contains a(n) ___ pointer that holds the address of the instruction being executed.
instruction
An authentication ___ is any method that confirms a person's identity using something the person knows, something the person possesses, or something the person is.
protocol
On a(n) ___-sensitive server, the user ID BJP is different than bjp.
case
A(n) __ attack can guess your password if you are using common passwords or every day words,
dictionary
A(n) ___ scam looks like a request from your bank or an online payment service, but is actually a hacker who wants you to disclose your user ID and password.
phishing
Most browsers include a built-in password ___ that remembers the user IDs and passwords you use when logging into websites or online e-mail.
manager
The ___ revolution is an ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by technologies such as computers and networks.
digital
The ___ is a global computer network originally developed as a military project, adapted for research and academic use, and then for commercial use.
Internet
___, a form of electronic communication, was an application for the masses and finally a reason to buy a computer and join the digital revolution.
E-mail
Another aspect of the digital revolution is ___, a process by which several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product.
convergence
Technology has the potential to spread ideas, such as freedom and democracy, but it might have a chilling effect on __, or "the right to be left alone."
privacy
It might also affect intellectual __ because digital technology has made it easy to produce copies with no loss in quality from the original.
property
And although technology-driven ___ has an effect on the economy, activists worry about the digital ___ that separates people who have access to technology and those who do not.
globalization, divide
A(n) ___ is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output according to a series of stored instructions.
computer
The data a computer is getting ready to process is temporarily held in __.
RAM
This data is then processed inn the central processing __.
unit
The series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks is referred to as computer __, which forms the ___ that sets up a computer to do a specific task.
program, software
Data is typically stored in a(n) ___ which is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium, such as a hard disk, CD, DVD, Blu-ray disc or USB flash drive.
file
The idea of a ___ program means that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computers memory.
stored
___ software is a set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task.
Application
___ software helps the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently.
System
For example, a computer __ system is essentially the master controller for all the activities that take place within a computer.
operating
A(n) __ computer is a type of microcomputer designed to meet the needs of an individual.
personal
The term ___ can refer to an ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network or to a powerful desktop computer designed for high-performance tasks.
workstation
A(n) ___ is, at the time of its construction, one of the fastest computers in the world.
supercomputer
A(n) ___ computer is large, expensive, and capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users.
mainframe
Mobile phones and portable media players can be classified as __ digital devices.
handheld
A(n) ___ is a special-purpose microprocessor that can control a device, such as a refrigerator or microwave oven.
microcontroller
___ data is processed, stored, and transmitted as a series of 1s and 0s.
digital
Each 1 or 0 is called a(n) __.
bit
A series of eight 0s and 1s, called a(n) __, represents one character---a letter, number, or punctuation mark.
byte
Data becomes __ when it is presented in a format people can understand and use.
information
___ data consists of numbers that might be used in arithmetic operations.
numeric
It can be represented digitally using the __ number system.
binary
___ data is composed of letters, symbols, and numerals that are not used in arithmetic operations.
character
Computers represent this type of data using __, EBCDIC, or Unicode.
ASCII
Data is quantified using terms such as __ or kibibyte, and prefixes such as __ or mebi, and giga or __.
kilobyte, mega, gibi
The bits that represent data travel as electronic pulses through __ circuits, sometimes called computer chips.
integrated
These chips are made from __ materials and are housed in chip carriers that can be plugged into the __board of a digital device.
semiconducting, system
The human-readable version of a program, created in a high-level language by a programmer, is called __ code.
source
A(n) ___ or an interpreter converts this high-level code into __ code.
compiler, object
This collection of preprogrammed activities is called a(n) __ set.
instruction
Each instruction begins with a(n) __ code, which is a command word for an operation such as add, subtract, compare, or jump.
op
Most instructions also include a(n) __ that specifies the data, or the address of the data, for the operation.
operand
The processor's ALU uses __ to hold data that is being processed.
registers
The processor's __ unit fetches each instruction, sends data to the registers, and then signals the ALU to begin processing.
control
Passwords and user IDs are the most common authentication __.
protocols
Password theft has become a serious security problem that has led to many cases of __ theft, when unauthorized individuals gain access to personal data.
identity
A(n) ___ attack tries passwords from a list of commonly used passwords.
dictionary
A(n) __ force attack tries every possible combinations of letters and numbers.
brute
___ intercepts information sent out over computer networks.
Sniffing
___ uses fraudulent Web sites or e-mail messages to fool unsuspecting readers into entering passwords and other personal information.
Phishing
A(n) __ is software that secretly records a user's keystrokes and sends them to a hacker.
keylogger
To keep passwords safe, you should consider using tiered passwords or standalone password __ softwares that generates secure passwords and keeps track of which password corresponds to each site you access.
management
The monitor, keyboard, and mouse are for a(n) ___ computer, workstation, or server.
personal
You receive an e-mail message asking you to join a circle of friends. You assume that the message was generated in conjunction with an online __ network, such as Facebook, and if you become a member, you will be able to socialize online.
social
You go to the iTunes music store and purchase an album. When you see the __ message at the top of the screen, you know that the songs are being transferred from the remote iTunes server to your local computer.
download
You're visiting an antique shop and notice a collection of old fashioned radios. They actually feature a dial for tuning in different radio stations. You immediately recognize this as a(n) __ device because it deals with an infinite scale of values, rather than discrete values.
analog
While attending a meeting at work, you hear one of the executives wondering if "unit code" would be helpful. After a moment of puzzlement, you realize that the executive really meant ___, and that it would allow your company software to be translated into the Cyrillic alphabet used by the Russian language.
unicode
You have a new storage device that offers 2 GB of storage space. It is currently empty. Your friend wants to give you a large digital photo that's 16 MB. Will it fit on your storage device?
yes
Your bank is giving customers the choice of using a 4-digit PIN or a password that can contain up to 10 letters and numbers. The ___ is more secure, so that's what you decided to use.
password
Which of the following passwords are the least secure: jeff683, hddtmrutc, gargantuan, fanhotshot, bb#ii22jeffry, or high 348?
gargantuan
In the United States, the __ Amendment provides protection from unreasonable searches and seizures.

A. First
B. Fifth
C. Third
D. Fourth
D. Fourth
Digital music first became popular when Internet-based file sharing networks, such as Apple's iTunes, offered free music downloads. True or False?
False
The __ is a communications technology that has the potential to expand freedom of speech by offering every person on the globe a forum for personal expression using personal Web sites, blogs, chat groups, and collaborative Wikis.
Internet
The Internet allows people to share resources as well as interact. Individuals' computers can be linked together in grid networks with powerful processing capabilities. An example of such network is ___.
A. iTunes
B. SETI@home
C. CompuServe
D. MySpace
B. SETI@home
The instruction __ refers to the process in which a computer fetches, interprets, and executes a single instruction, then increments the pointer to the next instruction.
cycle
The term "___" refers to the concept of combining the features of several devices into a single device.
convergence
A(n) ___ is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions.
computer
A(n) ___ is a pocket-sized digital appointment book with a small qwerty keyboard or a touch-sensitive screen, designed to run on batteries and to be used while being held.
PDA
Because of their speed, supercomputers can tackle complex tasks and compute-___ problems that just would not be practical for other computers.
intensive
It is not necessary to change your ___-security password very often.
low level
The control unit's instruction pointer indicates ___.
A. the ALU register holding data that is being processed
B. the address of the accumulator
C. a memory address that holds the instruction being processed
D. the disk location of the bootstrap program
C. a memory address that holds the instruction being processed
Blogs and postings on your Facebook wall are examples of __ communication in which participants do not have to be online at the same time.
asynchronous
A(n) __ has two rows of pins that connect the IC to a circuit board.
DIP or dual in-line package
You can digitally represent a sound wave by ___.
A. etching it onto a vinyl platter
B. sampling it at various points, and then converting those points into digital numbers
C. UNICODE
D. all of the above
B. sampling it at various points, and then converting those points into digital numbers
The ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology is referred to as the digital ___.
revolution
At one time, computers could be classified into three categories:
A. mainframes, desktops, and notebooks
B. CPUs, microcontrollers, and supercomputers
C. desktops, notebooks, and PDAs
D. mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers
D. mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers
Even if you have no evidence of password tampering, it is a good idea to change your password periodically. True or False?
True
The term "server" can refer to a computer hardware, a specific type of software, or a combination of hardware and software. True or False?
True
Foreign words make strong, secure passwords. True or False?
False
Files can contain data for a term paper, Web page, music video, or e-mail message, but not instructions telling a computer to perform various tasks. True or False?
False
An example of system software is a computer __ system, which is essentially the master controller for all activities that take place within a computer.
operating
The term "workstation" can refer to ___.
A. an ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network.
B. a powerful desktop computer used for high-performance tasks
C. a computer that resembles a desktop computer, but typically features more processing power and storage capacity
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
The electronic components of most digital devices are mounted on a circuit board called a(n) ___ board, motherboard or main board.
system
A pass ___ is one that is based on the first letters of a verse from a poem or song.
phrase
C, Basic, and Java are examples of high-level ___ languages.
programming
___ language, which is the list of codes for a microprocessor's instruction set, can be directly executed by the processor's circuitry.
machine
Transistors and integrated __ were key factors in making electronic devices increasingly smaller and less expensive.
circuits
The term ___ refers to a computer that is, at the time of construction, one of the fastest computers in the world.
supercomputer
Anyone can post virtually anything on the Web, so researchers and ordinary netizens who use the Web have to develop strategies to sift for the truth. True or False?
True
Surveillance is viewed by many people as an invasion of privacy. True or False?
True
___ is the illegal copying and distribution of copyrighted material.
Pirating
__ is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices.
Digitization
Which one of the following coding schemes requires seven bits?
A. ASCII
B. ABCDE
C. Extended ASCII
D. UNICODE
A. ASCII
Currently, hardware limitations such as screen size and __ life limit the sophistication of apps for handheld devices.
battery
Suppose a microprocessor is adding two numbers together. Where are the two numbers placed so that the addition operation can proceed?
A. in the control unit
B. in the ALU registers
C. in the accumulator
D. in the instruction pointer
B. in the ALU registers
A machine code instruction has two parts: the op code and the ___.
operand
A programmable handheld device is able to ___.
A. run apps
B. simultaneously process data for multiple users
C. work without an operating system
D. function without input
A. run apps
A group of eight bits is called a byte and is usually abbreviated as a lowercase b. True or False?
False
A(n) ___ is 1,048,576 bits.
A. megabit
B. megabyte
C. gigabit
D. kilobyte
A. megabit
A(n) ___ is sometimes called a computer-on-a-chip because it includes many of the elements common to computers.
microcontroller
An op code is a command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump. True or False?
True
Some of the first digital computers were designed ___.
A. during World War II for breaking codes and calculating missile trajectories
B. during the antiestablishment era of the 1960s for keeping track of student protesters
C. during the economic boom of the 1920s for business data processing applications
D. during the 1980s to take advantage of the Internet
A. during World War II for breaking codes and calculating missile trajectories
Which of the following is most useful for representing the alphabets of multiple languages because it uses sixteen bits and provides codes for 65,000 characters?
A. EBCDIC
B. Unicode
C. ASCII
D. Extended ASCII
B. Unicode
Digital technologies and communications networks make it increasingly difficult to cross cultural and geographic boundaries. True or False?
False
The ___ of a computer can process data by performing calculations, sorting lists of words or numbers, modifying documents, or drawing pictures.
A. storage
B. memory
C. CPU
D. input
C. CPU
___ are large and expensive computers typically used by businesses and government agencies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data.
mainframes
Web-based password managers are perfectly safe and pose no potential security problems. True or False?
False
The second phase of the digital revolution materialized when the __ was opened to public use.
Internet
___ automatically enter data into online Web forms, such as those that request billing data when you order at an online shopping site.
A. Password strength meters
B. Form fillers
C. Password controllers
D. Keyloggers
B. Form fillers
Digital technology makes it possible to copy and modify films, music, software, and other data, but ___.
A. laws allow you to make backup copies only if you don't defeat copy protection mechanisms
B. it is really difficult to make high-quality copies
C. the intellectual property they contain is not protected by copyright laws
D. although it is legal to distribute the copies you make, it is against the law to modify the copies
A. laws allow you to make backup copies only if you don't defeat copy protection mechanisms
You can carry around some password managers on a USB flash drive so that your passwords are available when you go to school or work. True or False?
True
A compiler converts and executes one statement at a time while the program is running. True or False?
False
The stored program concept is the single most important characteristic of a computer that distinguishes it from other simpler devices such as calculators. True or False?
True
Computers displaced __ for creating documents, obsoleted mechanical calculators for number crunching, and took games to an entirely new dimension.
typewriters
The United States has shown its commitment to free speech by rejecting any law that would restrict content posted on Web sites or made available on the Internet. True or False?
False
The black hat technique of intercepting information sent over computer networks is referred to as ___.
sniffing
Computer scientists have proposed that the term kibibyte be used to refer to 1,024 bytes. True or False?
True
A(n) __ is approximately one billion bytes.
gigabyte
Digital signals can be represented by two different voltages, such as +5 volts and 0 volts. They can also be represented by two different tones as they flow over a phone line. Digital data can also take the form of light and dark spots etched onto the surface of a CD or the positive and negative orientation of magnetic particles on the surface of a hard disk. True or False?
True
Global communications technology has reduced opportunities for teleworkers in distant countries. True or False?
False
The control unit fetches instructions, interprets them, fetches data, and tells the ___ which processing operations to perform.
ALU
Source code has to be converted into a digital format before the processor can use it. True or False?
True
Single-factor authentication is more secure than two-factor authentication. True or False?
false
___, a term coined by science fiction writer William Gibson, refers to entities that exist largely within computer networks.
cyberspace
Any software or digital device, such as a computer, that requests data from a server is referred to as a client. True or False?
True
The ability of a computer to use stored programs means ___.
A. that you can use your computer for one task, such as word processing, and then easily switch to a different type of computing task, such as editing a photo or sending an e-mail message
B. that a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer's memory
C. that computers can function as multipurpose machines
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
A DIP is a square chip package with pins arranged in concentric squares, typically used for microprocessors. True or False?
False
A series of characters that verifies a user ID and guarantees that you are the person you claim to be is called a ___.
password
All of the following are examples of output EXCEPT ___.
A. reports
B. documents
C. keyboard
D. music
C. keyboard
In the 1980s, social scientists worried that people would become increasingly isolated as they focused on computer activities rather than social ones. True or False?
True
Cell phones, iPods, e-book readers, and DVD and CD players are all examples of digital electronic devices. True or False?
True
A keylogger is a form of malicious code that is often distributed as a(n) __.
Trojan
The most significant effect of microcontrollers could be that they are an almost invisible technology, not requiring much adaptation or learning on the part of the people who interact with microcontrolled devices. True or False?
True
Which one of the following is not a benefit of globalization?
A. Consumers gain access to a wide variety of products, including technology products manufactured all over the globe.
B. Global communications technology offers opportunities for teleworkers in distant countries.
C. Companies can sell products to consumers worldwide.
D. It has virtually eliminated the digital divide.
D. It has virtually eliminated the digital divide.
In some less technically developed countries, women make a living by selling cell phone time to their neighbors. True or False?
True
When handheld digital devices such as iPods are programmable, they can run various __ that include games, calendars, and stock market trackers
applications or apps
All of the following are examples of character data EXCEPT __.
A. your pet's name
B. your address
C. your salary
D. your favorite color
C. your salary
`
Data can be represented using __ or analog methods.
digital
Network technology existed before the Internet became popular, but the first computer networks were mainly deployed in schools and businesses rather than homes and dorm rooms because of __.
A. the complexity of setting them up
B. their unreliability
C. the expense involved
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
The control unit's instruction pointer indicates __.
A. the ALU register holding data that is being processed
B. the address of the accumulator
C. a memory address that holds the instruction being processed
D. the disk location of the bootstrap program
C. a memory address that holds the instruction being processed
__ language, which is the list of codes for a microprocessor's instruction set, can be directly executed by the processor's circuitry.
Machine
For digital devices where base 2 is the norm, a kilo is precisely 1,024 or 2 to the __ power.
A. fourth
B. eighth
C. tenth
D. twelfth
C. tenth
Some standalone password managers provide a password __ meter, which indicates whether your passwords are secure enough.
Strength
__ is an open-source computer operating system that can be modified and freely distributed.
A. Windows
B. DOS
C. Mac OS
D. Linux
D. Linux
Worker advocates object to the use of cheap __ labor that displaces onshore employees
offshore or foreign
A keyboard and a mouse are examples of __ devices; a printer is an example of an output device.
input
Criminals can discover your password through __.
A. brute force attack
B. dumpster diving
C. sniffing
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Instruction sets are designed to carry out a specific task, such as word processing or playing music. True or False?
False
__ is the expectation that personal information will not be collected or divulged without permission.
confidentiality or privacy
__ refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas.
Data
Nokia is the flagship technology company of Finland, a world leader in __ technology.
wireless or cell phone
Technologies that can be embedded in devices or other objects and used for tracking include __.
A. cellular networks
B. GPS
C. RFID
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Passwords are typically used with two-factor authentication protocols, whereas PINs are used with single-factor authentication protocols. True or False?
False
Storage space is typically expressed in bits, whereas transmission speeds are typically expressed in bytes. True or False?
False
Memory is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing. True or False?
False