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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Juan Bonet and his advocates
published first book on teaching the deaf
advocated one-handed manual alphabet, early intervention, and provision of a consistent language environment
European founder of manualism
Abbe Charles-Michel de I'Epee
European founder of oralism
Samuel Heinicke
The father of the deaf in the US
Laurent Clerc (co-founded first school of the deaf; American School for the Deaf)
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Edward Miner Gallaudet, particularly which school(s) they founded
--Thomas: ASD
--Edward: Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Blind...became Gallaudet University
Reaction to Milan vote
--Deaf communities around the world were infuriated
--the National Association for the Deaf (NAD) was established in 1880
--Gallaudet combined spoken and sign language communication
--Bell formed A.G. Bell Association for the Deaf
Juan Bonet and his advocates
published first book on teaching the deaf
advocated one-handed manual alphabet, early intervention, and provision of a consistent language environment
European founder of manualism
Abbe Charles-Michel de I'Epee
Blooming of the deaf community in the 1950s
--Stokoe made a historical breakthrough declaring sign languages as real languages
--discourse around Deaf issues started to bloom with emerging sign language research in linguistic departments in the 1980s
--National Institute for the Deaf (NTD) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in 1968
Smallest meaningful units in the English language
Morpheme
European founder of oralism
Samuel Heinicke
Definition of oral methods
--the collection of methods that focus on using residual hearing and have development of oral speech and language as a goal
--development of spoken language skills for communication and learning and involve the production and reception of spoken language without the support of a visual-manual language or an artificially developed communication system
The father of the deaf in the US
Laurent Clerc (co-founded first school of the deaf; American School for the Deaf)
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Edward Miner Gallaudet, particularly which school(s) they founded
--Thomas: ASD
--Edward: Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Blind...became Gallaudet University
Naming chaos in oral methods
auditory-verbal therapy
auditory learning
aural habilitation
auditory habilitation
unisensory approach
acoupedics
verbertonal method
sound-perceptive method
hearing treatment
auditory approach
auditory training
acoustic method
Reaction to Milan vote
--Deaf communities around the world were infuriated
--the National Association for the Deaf (NAD) was established in 1880
--Gallaudet combined spoken and sign language communication
--Bell formed A.G. Bell Association for the Deaf
Blooming of the deaf community in the 1950s
--Stokoe made a historical breakthrough declaring sign languages as real languages
--discourse around Deaf issues started to bloom with emerging sign language research in linguistic departments in the 1980s
--National Institute for the Deaf (NTD) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in 1968
Smallest meaningful units in the English language
Morpheme
Definition of oral methods
--the collection of methods that focus on using residual hearing and have development of oral speech and language as a goal
--development of spoken language skills for communication and learning and involve the production and reception of spoken language without the support of a visual-manual language or an artificially developed communication system
Naming chaos in oral methods
auditory-verbal therapy
auditory learning
aural habilitation
auditory habilitation
unisensory approach
acoupedics
verbertonal method
sound-perceptive method
hearing treatment
auditory approach
auditory training
acoustic method
Auditory Verbal
*application and management of technology, strategies, techniques, and procedures to enable children with HI to learn to listen and understand spoken language in order to communicate through speech
*the exclusive focus upon listening and restricting a child's access to lipreading during therapy sessions
Natural Oralism/Natural Auralism
*no child is precluded on the grounds of being too deaf
*lipreading and natural gesture are not denied, although no emphasis is place on: if possible, audition should take precedence over vision for the child
*no enforced repetition of either words, sentences, or the inculcation of language structure rules: the emphasis is placed on the exchange of meaning
*meta-linguistic awareness is encouraged
SHORT ANSWER
Fundamental Elements of Maternal Reflective
-maternal element (shared feature with NA):
*starting point of promoting interaction Parents naturally use a different register when speaking to babies and young children
-reflective element (distinct feature):
*students are encouraged to reflect on language by writing down the conversation and preparing into a text by the teacher. Then the students are required to analyze the text
Similarities in ALL oral methods
--new technology
--early identification/intervention
--the primacy of parents
--effectively using language knowledge
Visual Phonics
a system of 46 hand cues used in conjunction with speech. It can be employed to augment auditory information and provide students with multisensory representation of sounds in the English language
Hearing
*acoustic access to the brain
*includes improving the signal-to-noise ratio by managing the environment and utilizing hearing technology
Listening
attend to acoustic events with intentionality
Three sense modalities in speech reception
-Vision
-Residual Audition
-Touch
psychological attributes of sound
pitch
loudness
physical parameters of sound
frequency
intensity
duration
components of acoustic cues
-suprasegrmental aspects
-vowel sounds
-consonant sounds
acoustic cues variability
Characteristics of the speaker
*source (breath and voice)
*size of the larynx
*signal (vocal tract)
*length and shape of vocal tract
SHORT ANSWER
Three factors influencing performance in auditory perception tasks
context
frequency with which words occur
the ability to resolve complex sound patterns
SHORT ANSWER
Three limitations to an audiogram
-not all pure-tone audiograms are reliable
-no info on processing the time relationships (i.e. duration)
-no indication of the child's level of tolerance for amplified sound
SHORT ANSWER
Auditory/linguistic learning process
*become aware of sound
*connect sound with meaning
*understanding more and more complex language
-first in quiet circumstances
-then in a variety of more difficult listening conditions
Relationship between speech and reading
-We are neurological “wired” to develop spoken language (speech) and reading skills through the central auditory system
-reading is a visual skill, but recent research on brain mapping shows the primary reading centers of the brain are located in the auditory cortex In the auditory portions of the brain
Ling's 6 sound test
/m/
/oo/
/ah/
/ee/
/sh/
/s/
characteristics of speech sounds
place
voice
manner
(PVM)