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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anaerobic Training
Consists of:
- High Intensity
- Intermittent Bouts
- of Exercise

- Weight Training
- Plyometric Drills
- Speed/Agility
- Internal Training
Anaerobic Training Adaptations
Improvements in:
- Muscular Strength
- Power
- Hypertrophy
- Muscular Endurance
- Motor Skill Performance
Size Principle
- De/recruitment of MU's in an orderly manner

Relationship between:
- MU Twitch Force
- Recruitment Threshold

MU's are recruited in Order According to their:
- Thresholds
- Firing Rates
Adaptation to Resistance Training (Muscle Fibers)
With Heavy Resistance Training:
- All fibers grow larger

Experienced Lifters:
- CNS adaptations allow greater MU activation of Larger MU's first
Selective Recruitment
Exception to Size Principle

Fast-Twitch MU"s may occur under Circumstances that allow the Athlete to:
- Inhibit Lower-Threshold MU"s
- Instead will Activate Higher MU's Thresholds to produce force
Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
Interface between the:
- Nerve
- Skeletal Muscle
- Potential Site for Neuro-Adaptations

All from Anaerobic Training
Electomyography (EMG)
Common Research Tool

Used to examine:
- Magnitude of Neural Activation following training
Training only One Limb
- Can Result in an Increase in Strength in the Untrained Limb!
Bilateral Deficit
Untrained Individuals

The Force Produced when Both Limbs are Contracting
- is Less than the Sum of
- The Forces when produced Unilaterally
Muscular Enlargement
- from Training
- Increase in Cross-Sectional Area
Structural Proteins


Part of Hypertrophy Adaptation
Muscle Regeneration
Proteins Increased in Hypertrophy


Increase in the actual
- Number of Muscle Fibers
- Via Longitudinal Fiber Splitting

Response to H.I.T. (Only in Animals, not so much Humans)
Mechanical Loading
Forces from Exercise that:
- Cause Deformation of Specific Regions of the Skeleton
- Created by Muscular Actions
- On Tendinous Insertion into Bone
- Bending, Compressive, Torsional
Cells that:
- Manufacture
- Secrete Proteins (Collagen)
- Placed in-between bone cells
- Increase bone strength

Migrates to Bone's Surface:
- Begin Bone Remodeling
Bone Matrix
Space Between Bone Cells
Calcium Phosphate Crystals
- Mineralized Collagen
Outer Surface of the Bone
Trabecular Bone
Spongy Bone
Cortical Bone
Compact Bone
- Dense
- Compact outer shell of bone
Minimal Essential Strain
The Threshold of Stimulus
- Initiates new Bone Formation
- From Enhanced Mechanical Strain
Bone Mineral Density
The Quantity of Mineral Deposited in a Given Area of Bone
Specificity of Loading
Using exercises that:
- Directly Load a Particular Region of the Skeleton
A Disease in which:
- Bone Mass
- Reduced to Critical Levels
Osteogenic Stimuli
Factors that Stimulate New Bone Formation
Structural Exercises
Exercises that Involve:
- Multiple Joints
- Direct Force Vectors Through
- - The Spine and the Hip
Progressive Overload
Progressively Placing:
- Greater than Normal Demands
- On the Exercising Musculature
- Training that increases Bone Mass
Stress Fractures
Micro-fractures in the Bone Due to:
- Structural Fatigue
Peak Bone Mass
Maximum Bone Mass Achieved during:
- Early Adulthood
Component of Mechanical Load for Bone Growth
Magnitude Load
- Intensity

Rate of Loading:
- Speed

Direction of Forces

Volume of Loading
- Number of Repetitions
How Do Athletes Stimulate Bone?
- Exercise for Direct Load (Specificity)

- Structural Exercises

- Progressively Overload

- Vary Exercise Selection

- Weight Bearing
The primary structural component of
- All Connective Tissue
- Type I for Bone/Tendon/Ligaments
- Type II for Cartilage
The Parent Protein to Collagen

Synthesized and Secreted by:
- Fibroblasts

3 Protein Strands Twisted Around Each Other (Triple Helix)
The Parallel Arrangement of Collagen Filaments
Strong Chemical Bonds of Collagen

Collagen True Strength

Chemical Bonds Forms Between Adjacent Collagen Molecules throughout collagen bundles
Elastic Fibers in Ligaments
Sites Where Connective Tissue Can Increase: Strength/Load Bearing
At Junctions Between the:
- Tendon/Ligament
- Bone Surface

Within Body of the
- Tendon/Ligament

In the Network of:
- Fascia within Skeletal Muscle
Increase of Strength in a Tendon Are From What Adaptations
Increase in Collagen Fibril Diameter

Greater Number of Covalent Cross-Linking in Hypertrophied Fiber

Increase in the Number of Collagen Fibrils

Increase in the Packing Density of Collagen Fibrils
Tendon Stiffness
Force Transmission:
- Per Unit of Strain (Tendon Elongation)
Main Function of Cartilage
- Provide Smooth Joint Articulating Surfaces

- Act as a Shock Absorber for Forces Directed Through the Joint

- Aid in the Attachment of Connective Tissue to the Skeleton
Hyaline Cartilage (Articular Cartilage)
Found on the:
- Articulating Surface of Bones
Fibrous Cartilage
Very Tough form of Cartilage

Found in:
- Intervertebral Disks of Spine
- At Junctions where Tendons Attach to Bone
Athletes Training for Connective Tissue Adaptations (Tendons, Ligaments, Fascia)
High-Intensity Exercise
Athletes Training for Connective Tissue Adaptations (Cartilage)
Weight-Bearing Forces

Complete Movements (Full ROM)

Moderate Aerobic Exercise
Acute Anabolic Hormonal Response to Anaerobic Exercise
Critical for Exercise Performance/Training Adaptations

- Upregulation of Anabolic Hormone Receptors is Important for:
- - Mediating the Hormonal Effects
Acute Anaerobic Exercise Results in:
- Cardiac Output
- Stroke Volume
- Heart Rate
- Oxygen Uptake
- Systolic BP
- Blood Flow to active Muscles
Reactive Hyperemia
When Contractions >20% max voluntary contraction
- Impedes Blood Flow

- Blood Flow Increases During Rest Periods (Reactive Hyperemia)
Rate Pressure Product
RPP = Resting Heart Rate x Systolic Blod Pressure

A Measure of Myocardial Work
Ventilation Equivalent
The Ration of:
- Air Ventilated to
- Oxygen Used by the Tissues
Possible Decrease of Power/Strength Output From Aerobic Training
Adverse Neural Changes

Alterations of Muscle Proteins n Muscle Fibers
- Frequency
- Volume
- Intensity

Of Training that Results in:
- Extreme Fatigue
- Illness
- or Injury

Due to Lack of:
- Sufficient Rest
- Recovery
- m/b Nutrient Intake
Excessive training on a Short-Term Basis
Overtraining Syndrome
The Condition resulting from
- Overtraining

Happens when Overreaching continues beyond a Reasonable Period of Time

aka. Staleness, burnout, chronic overwork, etc.
Sympathetic Overtraining Syndrome
- Sympathetic Activity at Rest
Psychological Markers of Anaerobic Overtraining
Decreased Desire to Train

Decreased Joy from Training
Hormonal Markers of Anaerobic Overtraining
- Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
- Increased beyond normal Exercise-Induced Levels
- aka. Sympathetic Overtraining Syndrome
Performance Markers of Anaerobic Overtraining
Performance Decrements
The Cessation of:
- Anaerobic Training

Or Substantial Reduction in:
- Frequency
- Volume
- Intensity
- or a combo of all 3

Results in:
- Decrements in Performance
- Loss of Physiological Adaptations

Happens ~2 weeks of no training
- Maybe more for Well Trained Athletes