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59 Cards in this Set

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Anaerobic Training
Consists of:
- High Intensity
- Intermittent Bouts
- of Exercise

i.e.:
- Weight Training
- Plyometric Drills
- Speed/Agility
- Internal Training
Anaerobic Training Adaptations
Improvements in:
- Muscular Strength
- Power
- Hypertrophy
- Muscular Endurance
- Motor Skill Performance
Size Principle
Governs:
- De/recruitment of MU's in an orderly manner

Relationship between:
- MU Twitch Force
- Recruitment Threshold

MU's are recruited in Order According to their:
- Thresholds
- Firing Rates
Adaptation to Resistance Training (Muscle Fibers)
With Heavy Resistance Training:
- All fibers grow larger

Experienced Lifters:
- CNS adaptations allow greater MU activation of Larger MU's first
Selective Recruitment
Exception to Size Principle

Fast-Twitch MU"s may occur under Circumstances that allow the Athlete to:
- Inhibit Lower-Threshold MU"s
- Instead will Activate Higher MU's Thresholds to produce force
Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
Interface between the:
- Nerve
- Skeletal Muscle
- Potential Site for Neuro-Adaptations

All from Anaerobic Training
Electomyography (EMG)
Common Research Tool

Used to examine:
- Magnitude of Neural Activation following training
Cross-Education
Training only One Limb
- Can Result in an Increase in Strength in the Untrained Limb!
Bilateral Deficit
Untrained Individuals

The Force Produced when Both Limbs are Contracting
- is Less than the Sum of
- The Forces when produced Unilaterally
Hypertrophy
Muscular Enlargement
- from Training
- Increase in Cross-Sectional Area
Structural Proteins
Titin

Nebulin

Part of Hypertrophy Adaptation
Myogenesis
Muscle Regeneration
Proteins Increased in Hypertrophy
Actin

Myosin

Myofibrils
Hyperplasia
Increase in the actual
- Number of Muscle Fibers
- Via Longitudinal Fiber Splitting

Response to H.I.T. (Only in Animals, not so much Humans)
Mechanical Loading
Forces from Exercise that:
- Cause Deformation of Specific Regions of the Skeleton
- Created by Muscular Actions
- On Tendinous Insertion into Bone
- Bending, Compressive, Torsional
Osteoblast
Cells that:
- Manufacture
- Secrete Proteins (Collagen)
- Placed in-between bone cells
- Increase bone strength

Migrates to Bone's Surface:
- Begin Bone Remodeling
Bone Matrix
Space Between Bone Cells
Hydroxyapatite
Calcium Phosphate Crystals
- Mineralized Collagen
Periosteum
Outer Surface of the Bone
Trabecular Bone
Spongy Bone
Cortical Bone
Compact Bone
- Dense
- Compact outer shell of bone
Minimal Essential Strain
The Threshold of Stimulus
- Initiates new Bone Formation
- From Enhanced Mechanical Strain
Bone Mineral Density
The Quantity of Mineral Deposited in a Given Area of Bone
Specificity of Loading
Using exercises that:
- Directly Load a Particular Region of the Skeleton
Osteoporosis
A Disease in which:
- BMD
- Bone Mass
- Reduced to Critical Levels
Osteogenic Stimuli
Factors that Stimulate New Bone Formation
Structural Exercises
Exercises that Involve:
- Multiple Joints
- Direct Force Vectors Through
- - The Spine and the Hip
Progressive Overload
Progressively Placing:
- Greater than Normal Demands
- On the Exercising Musculature
- Training that increases Bone Mass
Stress Fractures
Micro-fractures in the Bone Due to:
- Structural Fatigue
Peak Bone Mass
Maximum Bone Mass Achieved during:
- Early Adulthood
Component of Mechanical Load for Bone Growth
Magnitude Load
- Intensity

Rate of Loading:
- Speed

Direction of Forces

Volume of Loading
- Number of Repetitions
How Do Athletes Stimulate Bone?
- Exercise for Direct Load (Specificity)

- Structural Exercises

- Progressively Overload

- Vary Exercise Selection

- Weight Bearing
Collagen
The primary structural component of
- All Connective Tissue
- Type I for Bone/Tendon/Ligaments
- Type II for Cartilage
Procollagen
The Parent Protein to Collagen

Synthesized and Secreted by:
- Fibroblasts

3 Protein Strands Twisted Around Each Other (Triple Helix)
Microfibril
The Parallel Arrangement of Collagen Filaments
Cross-Linking
Strong Chemical Bonds of Collagen

Collagen True Strength

Chemical Bonds Forms Between Adjacent Collagen Molecules throughout collagen bundles
Elastin
Elastic Fibers in Ligaments
Sites Where Connective Tissue Can Increase: Strength/Load Bearing
At Junctions Between the:
- Tendon/Ligament
- Bone Surface

Within Body of the
- Tendon/Ligament

In the Network of:
- Fascia within Skeletal Muscle
Increase of Strength in a Tendon Are From What Adaptations
Increase in Collagen Fibril Diameter

Greater Number of Covalent Cross-Linking in Hypertrophied Fiber

Increase in the Number of Collagen Fibrils

Increase in the Packing Density of Collagen Fibrils
Tendon Stiffness
Force Transmission:
- Per Unit of Strain (Tendon Elongation)
Main Function of Cartilage
- Provide Smooth Joint Articulating Surfaces

- Act as a Shock Absorber for Forces Directed Through the Joint

- Aid in the Attachment of Connective Tissue to the Skeleton
Hyaline Cartilage (Articular Cartilage)
Found on the:
- Articulating Surface of Bones
Fibrous Cartilage
Very Tough form of Cartilage

Found in:
- Intervertebral Disks of Spine
- At Junctions where Tendons Attach to Bone
Athletes Training for Connective Tissue Adaptations (Tendons, Ligaments, Fascia)
High-Intensity Exercise
Athletes Training for Connective Tissue Adaptations (Cartilage)
Weight-Bearing Forces

Complete Movements (Full ROM)

Moderate Aerobic Exercise
Acute Anabolic Hormonal Response to Anaerobic Exercise
Critical for Exercise Performance/Training Adaptations

- Upregulation of Anabolic Hormone Receptors is Important for:
- - Mediating the Hormonal Effects
Acute Anaerobic Exercise Results in:
Increased:
- Cardiac Output
- Stroke Volume
- Heart Rate
- Oxygen Uptake
- Systolic BP
- Blood Flow to active Muscles
Reactive Hyperemia
When Contractions >20% max voluntary contraction
- Impedes Blood Flow

BUT…
- Blood Flow Increases During Rest Periods (Reactive Hyperemia)
Rate Pressure Product
RPP = Resting Heart Rate x Systolic Blod Pressure

A Measure of Myocardial Work
Ventilation Equivalent
The Ration of:
- Air Ventilated to
- Oxygen Used by the Tissues
Possible Decrease of Power/Strength Output From Aerobic Training
Adverse Neural Changes

Alterations of Muscle Proteins n Muscle Fibers
Overtraining
Excessive:
- Frequency
- Volume
- Intensity

Of Training that Results in:
- Extreme Fatigue
- Illness
- or Injury

Due to Lack of:
- Sufficient Rest
- Recovery
- m/b Nutrient Intake
Overreaching
Excessive training on a Short-Term Basis
Overtraining Syndrome
The Condition resulting from
- Overtraining

Happens when Overreaching continues beyond a Reasonable Period of Time

aka. Staleness, burnout, chronic overwork, etc.
Sympathetic Overtraining Syndrome
Increased:
- Sympathetic Activity at Rest
Psychological Markers of Anaerobic Overtraining
Decreased Desire to Train

Decreased Joy from Training
Hormonal Markers of Anaerobic Overtraining
Acute:
- Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
- Increased beyond normal Exercise-Induced Levels
- aka. Sympathetic Overtraining Syndrome
Performance Markers of Anaerobic Overtraining
Performance Decrements
Detraining
The Cessation of:
- Anaerobic Training

Or Substantial Reduction in:
- Frequency
- Volume
- Intensity
- or a combo of all 3

Results in:
- Decrements in Performance
- Loss of Physiological Adaptations

Happens ~2 weeks of no training
- Maybe more for Well Trained Athletes