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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Main jobs of browser
1. Access the web (converse with server)
2. Show the web page
The web has become the dominant method for interacting with....?
sever-based computerized systems.
Def: Protocol
the rules for encoding the web documents and the rules for how the client and the server software interact with each other.
Def: Web Client
The computer a user uses or the software that is used to access the web.
Main goal of web client software (web browser)
request and recieve web pages from servers and then display them
2 main ty[es of programs that browsers need to handle
Scripts and Applets
Applets
- written in Java
- take control of a portion of the page
- can use flewible graphical primitives
Scripts
- written in Java Script
- weaker graphical abilities
- can only control appearance and placement of page elements
- more extensively integrated with browser
- more user interaction capabilities
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
rules for ineraction between browser and server
-describes the types of messages the server and client can send to each other
- meanings of the various fields in those messages
- order messages are sent
- way to handle various error messages
Meaning behind: HTTP is a request-reply protocol
browser requests a document from the server which then sends a reply.
Why is HTTP considered a stateless protocol?
Each HTTP request/responce is handled independently. This makes it easier to built fast and reliable servers.
Use of Uniform Resource Locators (URL)
used to reference web documents or other resources.
http://www.wisc.edu/classes/fall07.html

1.http://
2.www.wisc.edu
3.classes
4.fall07.html
1. protocol
2. server
3. directory
4. file name
Mode of operation for a web server with a static page
- waits for connections from web clients
- locates corresponding document on its file system and send it to browser
-
Mode of operation for a web server with a dynamic page
- waits for connections from web clients and for each request
- server executes programs provided by web site then fills parts of the page with info from the database.
Dynamic web pages can...?
- be used to personalize web pages based on user preference
- act as interfaces for databases
- implement new services
- provide new solution for services normally requiring desktop applications
Uses for HTML
- language used for encoding web pages
- text-based format
- uses tags to convey information about structure and formatting of the page
Organization responsible for defining the HTML standard
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
XML focuses on the ____ not on the _____ like HTML does
data; presentation
Open-close tags can be ____
nested but cannot overlap
Def: Relative URLS
partial URLS; redirects to a different page under the same server
Def: Absolute URLS
full address of web site
<h1></h1>
level one heading
XHTML document must start with what?
DOCTYPE declaration which identifies the version of the standard the document follows. This line allows the browser to interpret the document correctly if different versions of the standard prescribe different interpretations for a given element.
<head></head>
Elements that don't need to be rendered inside the window
<body></body>
Elements that do need to be rendered inside the window.
<br/>
Line break
<p></p>
Paragraph
<pre></pre>
preformatted text; browser respects new lines and tabs that are part of such text
<em></em>
emphasis
<code></code>
program code
<tt></tt>
monospace font
<sub></sub>
subscript
<sup></sup>
superscript
<ul></ul>
bulleted lists; unordered lists
<ol></ol>
numbered lists; ordered lists
<li></li>
listed items
</id>
specifies a name to a certain part in the text that elsewhere in the page can link to
<select></select>
generates a dropdown list the user can select an option
<options></options>
can choose multiple choices from the list
Use of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
hold presentation information seperately from the HTML document
Why use CSS?
- easier to change look and feel
- possible to view web pages with different media
- different people can work on different aspects of the site
Def: selectors
define which HTML elements the rule applys to
Def: declarations
lists CSS attributes and their values
3 ways to add style sheets to web page
1. add </link> tag linking to style sheet in document
2. <style></style> specifies roles directly in document (not good for information that applys to more than one page)
3. HTML attribute 'style' which can occur in body of document (good for testing, shouldn't be in final pages because it doesn't separate content and style)
<tr></tr>
tag used to define rows within the table
<td></td>
tag is used to define cells of the table
Def: light
electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is within a certain range
Def: ambient light
a mix that contains photons with various wavelengths from the visible spectrum
White
reflects all wavelengths
Black
absorbs all wavelengths
<span></span>
Used to change a part of a text within a paragraph (i.e. italicizing a word or sentence)
Which three monochromatic wavelength does the computer display a mix of?
Red, Green, and Blue
Two important forms of digital images
1. Seguence of bytes in a file
2. Display on the screen: Rectangular matric of pixels
Def: Transmission Control protocol (TCP)
reliable connection oriented service supported by the Internet
GET command
used for getting documents fro mthe serber and it is followed by header lines followed by two new lines
User-Agent line
tells the server about the specific implementation of the client. Also allows the server to track what browsers are popular among the people interested in the site.
Referer line
an important source of information about how the side is used as it hold the URL of the document from which the user arrived to the document being requested
POST command
used for sending dad that will result in a change at the server