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95 Cards in this Set

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glaucomatous visual field loss first occurs in
bjerrum areas of the upper and lower hemispheres. curve around the macula, upward and downward from blind spot toward the nsal fields.
SWAP is aka
blue-yellow perimetry. Detects glaucomatous field loss at earlier stages than std white on white.
SWAP uses what goldman size stim?
goldman V
Total deviation prob plots
highlight areas of the visual field that fall outside the normal range
Pattern deviation prob plots
highlight the localized loss typical in glaucoma while filtering out generalized loss. flag areas that deviate significantly from normal.
glaucoma hemifeld test GHT
analyses test result comparing local defects in zones of upper field with those found in mirror image zones in lower hemifeld.
std white stimulus range
5.1 log units, 51 dB, 0.08 - 10,000 asb
dB values refers to
retinal sensitivity, rather than stimulus intensity. 0 dB corresponding to the max brightness
Dimmest stimulation normally seen foveally
38-40 dB, thus 41-51 dB really falls outside the normal range
stimulus intensity and goldman size used most of the time?
0.43 goldman III used most of the time
stimulus duration?
200 ms
gaze printout upward?
amt of gaze error at each stimulus presenation, full scale = gaze error of 10 degrees or more
gaze printout downward?
instrument was unsuccessful in measuring gaze direction during stimulation presenation.
total deviation prob plot positive values
higher than normal sensitivities
total deviation prob plot negative values
lower than the megian age corrected sensitivity
bjerrum scotoma
focal notch at optic disc that reaches the edge of the disc. usually extends around point of fixation and ends abruptly at the nasal horizontal meridian corresponding to the temporal raphe.
paracentral scotomas
usually nasal, involve fibers of approximately the same length.
nasal steps
abrupt difference in sensitivity across the nasal horizontal meridian in the visual field.
localized field losses
paracentral, acurate and nasal defects. They have shape
Generalized homogenous visual field loss
uniform loss of sensitivity across the whole visual field.
Optic nerve disease
unilateral central scotoma
optic chiasm affected
usually affects crossing fibers first, resulting in bitemporal hemianopias.
post chiasmal disease
homonymous hemianopic defects. Tend to respect the vertical meridian. More congruous when further back toward the occipital lobe.
field defects caused by retinal lesions
sharp borders and tend to show much less variability from test to test.
diabetic retinopathy
mottled appearance
retinitis pigmentosa
circular and initially located midperiphery, but can then progress to tunnel vision.
normal visual fields
100 degrees temporally, 60 degrees nasally, 60 superior, 75 inferior
Isopter
a line on a visual field presentation joining pts of equal sensitivity. inside the lines - areas above threshold. outside the lines areas below threshold
higher the dB the
dimmer the target
amsler grid, VA > 20/50
black lines on white background
Amsler grid, Va < 20/50 but > 20/200
white lines on a black background
Prechiasmal, central scotoma
involves fixation
Prechiasmal, cecocentral
involves fixation and extends temporally to blindspot
Prechiasmal, pericentral
scotoma within 10 degrees of fixation, but not including fixation
Prechiasmal, arcuate, bjerrum's
extends from superior or inferior margin of blind spot into nasal field, glaucoma.
Prechiasmal, arcuate, deidels
sickle shaped scotoma, upward or downward prlongation of the blindspot, glaucoma
Prechiasmal, Altitudinal defect
2 quadrants either upper or lower half of visual field in one or both eyes
Chiasmal, heminaopia
defect in one half of visual field
chiasmal, heteronymous emianopia
both nasal halves or both temporal halves
chiasmal bitemporal heminaopia
temporal defect of both eyes. pituatory likely cause
Chiasmal, junctional scotoma
loss of visual field in 1 eye and superior temporal in opposite eye. lesion is right in front of chiasm.
Postchiasmal, quadrantonopia
quarter section defect
Postchiasmal, complete hemianopia
defect of entire right or left hemifield
Postchiasmal, incomplete hemianopia
portion of right of left hemifeld spared
Postchiasmal, incomplete hemianopia congruous
homonymous hemianopia, can be superimposed
Postchiasmal, incomplete hemianopia, incongruous
differ in size shape or position
postchiasmal, hemonymous hemianopia
nasal half of one visual field and temporal half of other eye
failure to respect vertical or horizontal
due to outer retinal or choroidal disease
straddles fixation and large blind spot
lesion in papillomacular bundle
straddles fixation and normal blind spot
lesion in the macula
if defect respects horizontal
lesion in the arcuate bundle
if defect respects vertical
lesion at or behind the chiasm
if defect respects both the vertical and the horizontal
lesion is in the occipital lobe
if the defect is monocular then it must be
in front of the chiasm
papillomacular bundle
central scotoma or cecocentral scotoma
arcuate bundle
bjerrum, seidels or nasal step
Prechiasmal, Altitudinal defect
2 quadrants either upper or lower half of visual field in one or both eyes
Chiasmal, heminaopia
defect in one half of visual field
chiasmal, heteronymous emianopia
both nasal halves or both temporal halves
chiasmal bitemporal heminaopia
temporal defect of both eyes. pituatory likely cause
Chiasmal, junctional scotoma
loss of visual field in 1 eye and superior temporal in opposite eye. lesion is right in front of chiasm.
Postchiasmal, quadrantonopia
quarter section defect
Postchiasmal, complete hemianopia
defect of entire right or left hemifield
Postchiasmal, incomplete hemianopia
portion of right of left hemifeld spared
Postchiasmal, incomplete hemianopia congruous
homonymous hemianopia, can be superimposed
Postchiasmal, incomplete hemianopia, incongruous
differ in size shape or position
anton's syndrome
blindsight
retorgeniculate, temporal lobe
siezures and formed visual hallucinations. slightly incongruous an denser above, pie in the sky
retrogeniculate, parietal lobe
hemiparesis, visual perceptual difficulties, inferior visual field, more congruous, pie on the floor
retrogeniculate, occipital
homonymous hemianopias very congruous
optic tract usually present
homonomous defects
anterior retrochiasmal lesions
are incongruous homonymous heminaopias
posterior visual pathways lesions causes
congruous heminopias
retrochiasmal lesions
respect the vertical
post chiasmal, always
both eyes. defects limited to half the field and field defects end abruptly at the vertical. homonomous.
chiasmal, anterior chiasmal
junctional scotoma
chiasmal, body of chiasm
relative or absolute bitemporal hemianopic scotomas
chiasmal,m post chiasm
bitermporal hemianopic scotomas
chiasmal, optic track
homonymous hemianopia
if defect has sharp horizontal border nasally
result of prechiasmal
if defect crosses the vertical
lesions must be prechiasmal
if visual defect only in one eye
the lesion must be prechiasmal.
optic nerve lesions, arcuate scotomas
glaucoma or optic disc lesions, end abruptly along horizontal
optic nerve lesions, central scotoma
unilateral - optic neuritis and compressive lesions.
bilateral - nutritional def, toxic optic neuropathies.
congruous are usually
occipital lobe lesions
incongruous
parietal or temporal lobe lesion
if monocular then it must be
in front of the lesion
if monocular and central scotoma or cecocentral scotoma
papillomacular bundle
if monocular and bjerrum, seidels or nasal step
arcuate undle damage
if monocular and wedge shaped scotoma
nasal fiber bundle damaged
if monocular and temporal visual field defect points toward blindspot
temporal visual field defect, optic nerve disease
if monocular and temporal visual field defect that points to fixation
lesion at or behind the chiasm.
If defects respects both vertical and horizontal
lesions is in occipital
if defect respects vertical
lesion is at or behind the chiasm
if defect respects horizontal
lesions is in the arcuate bundle.