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50 Cards in this Set

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Tracheal Deviation:

Pulled toward abnormal side.
1) atelectasis
2) pul. fibrosis
3) pneumonectomy
4) diaphragmatic paralysis
Tracheal Deviation:

Pulled toward normal side.
1) pleural effusion(MOST COMMON)
2) tension pneumothorax
3) neck or thryroid tumors
4) large mediastinal mass
Percussion:

Resonance
normal
Percussion:

Flatness
atelectasis

over sternum
full sound
Percussion:

Dullness
pleural effusion

over fluid-filled organs
thudding sound
Percussion:

Tympany
COPD

over air-filled organs
drum-like sound
Percussion:

Hyperresonance
pneumothorax / emphysema

over areas of above pathologies
booming sound
Auscultation:

Bilateral vesicular
Bronchial Breath sounds
normal over the trachea/bronchi
abnormal over lung periphery - indicates consolidation=pneumonia
Tx: antibiotics
Auscultation: Rales

1)Coarse
2)Medium
3)Fine
1)large airways - Sx
2)medium airways - CPT
3)alveoli/fluid/CHF/Pul.Edema - bronchoscopy,IPPB,IS,Diuretics,
Digitalis
Auscultation: Wheeze

1)Lateral
2)Unilateral
1) bronchospasm - bronchodilator
2) foreign body obs. - bronchoscopy/Sx
Auscultation: Stridor

1)supraglottic
2)subglottic
3)Foreign Body Obs.
1)epiglotitis/sever swelling - Intubate
2)croup/post extubation - racemic epi/humidity
3) solids/fluid -bronchoscopy/sx
Auscultation: Pleural Rub
-inflammed visceral/parietal pleura
-pleurisy,TB,pneumonia,pul.infarction,cancer
-Tx: steroids/antibiotics
Heart sounds:

S1
First sound (normal)

closure of mitral/tricuspid
Heart sounds:

S2
Second sound (normal)

closure of pulmonic/aortic valve
Heart sounds

S3
S4
abnormal

1) CHF
2) mycocardial infarction /cardiomegaly
4 Critical Life Functions
1) Ventilation - open airway
2) Oxygenation - increase FiO2
3) Circulation - Chest comp
4) Perfusion - increase BP
Normal Urine Output
40 cc/hr
Orthopnea
CHF, heart problem
Tx: diuretics

Difficulty breathing except in an upright position.
General Malaise
Electrolyte Imbalance

Run down feeling, nausea, weakness, fatigue, headache
When are costophrenic angles obliterated?
pleural effusions
When is the diaphragm flattened?
COPD
Lateral decubitus
Pt lying on the affected side.

Valuable for detecting PLEURAL EFFUSION
Radiolucent
Air
Dark pattern
normal lungs
Radiodense
Solid / Fluids
White pattern
normal bones/organs
Infiltrate
Ill defined radiodensity

Atelectasis
Tx: IPPB/IS
Consolidation
Solid white area

Pneumonia / Pleural Effusion
TX: Lasix
Hyperlucency
Extra air

COPD, Asthma attack,
pneumothorax
Tx: Lasix
Vascular markings
lymphatics, vessels, lung tissue

increase presence = CHF
absence = pneumothorax
Diffuse
spread thru-out

Atelectasis/pneumonia
Opaque
fluid/solid
Fluffy infiltrates
Diffuse whiteness

Pulmonary Edema
Butterfly pattern
Infiltrate in shape of butterfly/batwing

Pulmonary Edema
Patchy Infiltrates
Scattered densities

Atelectasis
Platelike Infiltrates
Thin-layered densities

Atelectasis
Ground Glass Appearance
reticulogranular

ARDS / IRDS
Tx: surfactant, PLS ventilation
Honeycomb Pattern
reticulonodular

ARDS / IRDS
Airbronchogram
Pneumonia
Peripheral Wedge-shaped Infiltrate
Pulmonary Embolus
Concave Superior Interface/border
Pleural Effusion
Basilar Infiltrates with Meniscus
Pleural Effusion
Main indication for Bronchography
Bronchiectasis
V/Q Scan: Results indicate normal ventilation scan but abnormal perfusion scan
Pulmonary Emboli
Indication for Electroencephalography
evaluation of sleep disorders
ICP: normal value

When to initiate tx?
5-10 mmHg
>20 mmHg
Tx: increase RR, blow off CO2 to cause vasoconstriction. Mannitol=diuretic gets fluid out of brain.
Indication for Ultrasonography of the Heart (Echocardiogram)
Noninvasive method for monitoring cardiac performance (on newborns)
RBC:
1)Normal value?
2)What does it carry?
3)Significance of Low?
4)Significance of High?
1)4-6 mill/cu mm
2)O2/hgb
3)anemia
4)polycythemia, presence of Chronic hypoxemia/COPD
Hb:
1)Normal value?
2)What does it carry?
3)Significance of Low?
4)Significance of High?
1)12-16 gm/100 ml
2)O2
3)anemia
4)polycythemia
Hct:
1)Normal value?
2)Significance of Low?
3)Significance of High?
1)40-50%
2)anemia
3)polycythemia
WBC:
1)Normal value?
2)Significance of Low?
3)Significance of High?
1)5,000 - 10,000 per cu mm
2)Viral infection (leukopenia)
3)Bacterial infection (leukocytosis)
K+
1)Normal Values?
2)Significance of Low?
3)Significance of High?
1)(4.0) 3.5-5.0
2)hypokalemia: metabolic alkalosis, excessive excretion,renal loss, vomiting. [FLATTENED T-WAVE]
3)hyperkalemia: metabolic acidosis, kidney failure. [SPIKED T-WAVE]