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76 Cards in this Set

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anger
emotion of displeasure aroused by a threat overt (explicit) or covert (hidden) wrongdoing, attack, or offense
display rules
patterns of emotional expression considered appropriate within a particular culture, age, or social group
emotion
an evaluative response (a positive or negative feeling) that typically includes some combination of physiological arousal, subjective experience, and behavioural or emotional expression
emotion recognition
the process of identification, description, and explanation of an emotional expression
evaluations of emotions
an individual assessment of emotions according to certain criteria or principles
feeling rules
particular cultural rules about how to feel in particular situations
preceding events
the environmental circumstances and individual reactions that have a strong impact on particular emotional experiences
stress
perception of a continuous challenge to a person's capacity to adapt to inner and outer demands
aggressive motivation
the desire to harm or injure others
arousal theories
motivational theories based on an assumption that people seek to maintain optimal levels of arousal by actively changing their exposure to arousing stimuli
collectivist-success motivation
a type of achievement motivation that directs a person to connect with others; the individual's contribution is seen as beneficial to the members of a particular group or society in general
drive
an internal aroused condition that directs an organism to satisfy some physiological need
extrinsic motivation
a type of motivation that engages people in various activities for a particular reward
individualist-success motivation
a type of achievement motivation that affects one's attitudes and actions and is directed toward the attainment of personal goals
instinct
a relatively complex, inherited behaviour pattern characteristic of a species
intrinsic motivation
a type of motivation that engages people in various activities for no apparent reward except the pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself
motivation
the psychological process that arouses, directs, and maintains behaviour
need
a motivated state caused by physiological deprivation (such as a lack of food or water)
need for achievement
a social need that directs people to strive constantly for excellence and success
self-actualization
a final level of psychological development in which individuals strive to realize their uniquely human potential to achieve everything they are capable of achieving
sex culture
a set of requirement, beliefs, symbols, and norms regarding sexuality and its expression
sexual motivation
a type of motivation that engages the individual in sexual activity
anxiety disorders
a category of mental disorders characterized by persistent anxiety or fears
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
a developmental disorder characterized by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and restlessness of the child
central symptoms
symptoms of mental disorders observable in practically all cultures
culture-bound syndromes
recurrent, locally specific patterns of aberrant behaviour and troubling experience that may or may not be linked to a particular DSM-IV diagnostic category; generally limited to specific societies or areas and indicate repetitive and troubling sets of experiences and observations
depressive disorder
a category of psychological disorders characterized by a profound and persistent feeling of sadness or despair, guilt, loss of interest in things that were once pleasurable, and disturbance in sleep and appetite
melancholy
the most common label used in many countries in the past for symptoms known today as depression
mental disorder
a clinically significant behavioral and psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (a painful syndrome) or disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom
peripheral symptoms
symptoms of mental disorders that are culture-specific
personality disorders
enduring patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture
psychotherapy
the treatment of psychological disorders through psychological means, generally involving verbal interaction with a professional therapist
relativist perspective
a view of psychological disorders, according to which human beings develop ideas, establish behavioral norms, and learn emotional responses according to a set of cultural prescriptions; therefore, people from different cultural settings should understand psychological disorders differently, and the differences should be significant
schizophrenia
a disorder characterized by the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized or catatonic behavior
tolerance threshold
a measure of tolerance or intolerance toward specific personality traits in a specific cultural environment
universalist perspective
a view of psychological disorders, according to which people, despite cultural differences, share a great number of similar features, including attitudes, values, and behavioral responses
acculturation
considered in the context of immigration, the process of an individual's adjustment to a new culture
censorship
the restrictive practice of reviewing and determining what is appropriate for publication or broadcasting- according to moral, ideological, or political considerations
counseling
the act of providing psychological direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
organization development
a set of planned changes targeting at improving organizational and individual performance and well-being in a private business or government company; means the creation of an atmosphere that incorporates cultural and cross-cultural knowledge into the work process to increase both the overall efficiency and psychological satisfaction in the workplace
refugee
one who has left one's native country and is unwilling or unable to return to it because of persecution or fear of persecution (because of race, religion, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion)
spirituality
a broad range of phenomena concerning "nonmaterial" matters related to faith, trust, and hope, in contrast to "material" matters related to ownership, accumulation of possessions, and competition; emphasizes mind over matter, being over having, and mental effort over physical action
James-Lange theory
emotion is embedded into bodily experience; the physical experience leads the person to feel aroused, and the arousal stimulates the subjective experience of anxiety, joy, etc.
Cannon-Bard theory
various life situations can elicit both an emotional experience, such as disgust or fear, and bodily responses, such as increased blood pressure or sweaty palms
Schachter-Singer theory
there are two crucial elements of emotional experience- physiological arousal and the cognitive interpretation of this arousal; in every emotion we first experience a state of physiological arousal, then we try to explain to ourselves what the arousal means
Darwin's view
basic human emotional expressions are similar because they serve an adaptive purpose; both animals and humans signal their readiness or willingness to help, fight, or run through gestures, postures, and facial expressions; emotions regulate social behavior and may protect people from danger
jealousy
an indication of one's anxiety of being supplanted, or left without care or affection from another person
sociobiological approach
the struggle for survival within the human species motivates people to compete for scarce resources, and those who lack motivation to compete will fail
social reflexes
universal for all people in all cultures; cause humans to act purposefully, overthrow governments, write music, and commit crimes
destructive instincts
possessed by all humans; convert into behaviors of the big crowd (ex: rioters are driven by their destructive impulses)
social contagion
makes the intentions of one person easily spread through the group
G. Tarde (sociobiological)
everything in human behavior is the result of the natural process of imitation; different social conditions (national traditions, customs, and norms) are maintained because of people's natural instinct of imitation
sociological approach
emphasizes the crucial role of social factors in determining individual motivation
Weber (sociological)
there are 2 types of societies- preindustrial/traditional (people's desires and actions are viewed as appropriate and inappropriate on the basis of their links (or lack thereof) to the existing customs and rules), and industrial/nontraditional (people are motivated by rationality and by scarcity and value of time)
Marx (sociological)
an economic condition of inequality activates human needs; oppressed want their share of the resources, oppressors want to keep the status quo
biological needs
universal needs; direct human behavior toward self-preservation
social needs
needs that direct people toward establishing and maintaining relationships
drive theories
theories that people across countries come to value what they don't have; goal of behavior is to attain a state of stability or balance within the individual; stimuli (ex: hunger, pain) energize and initiate our behavior
arousal theories
theories that suggest that people seek to maintain optimal levels of arousal by actively changing their exposure to arousing stimuli
psychodynamic approach
central concept is the unconscious; all humans are born with two basic drives: the life instinct (all the tendencies that strive toward the integration of a living substance) and the death wish (all the tendencies toward aggression and death)
humanistic theories
focus on human dignity, individual choice, and self-worth
Maslow (humanistic)
humans have a number of innate needs that are arranged in a hierarchy in terms of their potency (physiological, safety, belonging and need, esteem, self-actualization)
cognitive theories
theories that maintain that people are aware of their thought patterns and therefore can control their motivation and behavior; people learn what they want and how to achieve rewards, mastery, and affiliation
task orientation
involves the goal of developing one's ability to learn and grow
ego orientation
implies illustrating one's superiority over others
pathologization
assigning pathological characteristics to ordinary, nonpathological psychological phenomena
imposed solution
every solution will benefit one party and harm the other
distributive solution
offers proposals that are midway between the initial positions of both (or all) conflicting parties
integrative solution
both sides can benefit simultaneously, without losing anything substantial
balanced representation
refers to the degree to which an ethnic group's population is commensurate with the amount of time they are represented on TV and other forms of media
assimilation
individuals' acceptance of the customs and values of their new culture and subsequent rejection or abandonment of the behaviors and values of their old culture
integration
the acceptance of the major features of both cultures
marginalization
the rejection of both cultures
political censorship
defenders of this form of censorship argue that restrictions on info are necessary to protect social order and stability
ideological censorship
various societal institutions (organized religion, government) establish principles about the society's past, present, and future; info that challenges these principles is prohibited from publication
moral censorship
local communities develop particular informal standards of morality and decency; in addition, some laws prescribe the standards to be followed in communications among businesses, institutions, and the media