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80 Cards in this Set

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culture
The shared rules that govern the behaviour of a group of people and enable the members of that group to co-exist and survive (p. 767)
enculturation
The process of absorbing and internalising the rules of the culture we live in (p. 768)
cultural psychologists
Psychologists who study the ways in which people are affected by the culture they live in (p. 768)
cross-cultural psychologists
Psychologists who compare the similarities and differences in behaviour across different societies or cultures (p. 768)
emic perspective
a research approach that involves focusing on a specific cultural group and examining particular psychological aspects of that group (p. 768)
etic perspective
A research approach that involves the search for commonalities or differences across cultures (p. 768)
cross-cultural comparison studies
Research that involves comparing two or more different cultures in relation to a particular psychological variable (p. 769)
cross-cultural validation studies
Research that examines whether a psychological variable in one culture can be applied and have meaning in another culture (p. 769)
unpackaging studies
Studies that try to explain why cultural differences occur, looking at the range of variables that might account for divergence in a particular aspect (p. 769)
matched samples
Samples in which individuals from one culture reflect the same characteristics of individuals from another culture (p. 769)
individualism–collectivism continuum
A dimension of culture measured by the extent to which cultures favour individual goals compared with communal goals (p. 770)
Reciprocity.
The researcher needs to respect the values and cultures of the people involved and balance the benefits to be gained against any potential risks to participants.
Respect.
The researcher needs to affirm the right of people to have different beliefs, customs and aspirations, and show regard for their personal welfare and cultural heritage.
Equality.
The researcher needs to appreciate and respect cultural differences, treating all participants as equals.
Responsibility.
The researcher needs to work with the people and communities involved, ensuring that the research does no harm to participants or to their cultural belief systems.
Survival and protection.
The research needs to reinforce the strong social and cultural bonds between indigenous people and their communities, respecting their right to assert a cultural distinctiveness.
Spirit and integrity.
An overarching value is that the research respects and unites the values and integrity of indigenous people and communities with their cultural heritage.
monochronic cultures
Cultures in which time is divided into linear segments and closely regulated (p. 772)
polychronic cultures
Cultures in which time is much more fluid and less closely regulated (p. 772)
cultural display rules
The theory that cultures differ in relation to rules on the appropriateness of displaying certain emotions in particular social circumstances (p. 772)
Intimate space.
This is the closest ‘bubble’ of space surrounding a person. Getting this close to a person is normally acceptable only for close friends, lovers and family.
Social and consultative space.
This refers to the amount of space people feel comfortable with when interacting socially with acquaintances as well as strangers.
Public space.
This refers to the distance apart at which people find it hard to interact with others, or perceive interactions as largely impersonal.
conversational distance
How close people stand to each other when they are talking (p. 773)
high-context cultures
Cultures that pay close attention to non-verbal signs like body language and conversational difference to decode the real meaning behind words or actions (p. 773)
low-context cultures
Cultures that pay close attention to what people actually say or do and interpret that literally, without as much regard to the accompanying circumstances (p. 773)
tight cultures
Cultures in which group members are expected to closely adhere to cultural norms and expectations (p. 773)
loose cultures
Cultures in which norms are unclear or deviance from norms is tolerated (p. 773)
individualist cultures
Cultures that emphasise the primacy of the individual over the group (p. 774)
collectivist cultures
Cultures that emphasise the group over individuals (p. 774)
multiculturalism
A situation where multiple cultures exist within a country and where the number of inhabitants representing those minority cultures is significant (p. 775)
pluralism
A situation where there is general acceptance not just of the existence of many different cultural and ethnic groups but also of their right to retain their cultural heritage and coexist (p. 776)
culture shock
The feeling of disorientation and anxiety that occurs as people from one culture encounter and adapt to the practices, rules and expectations of another culture (p. 779)
The honeymoon phase
initial euphoria and excitement.
The disenchantment phase
disillusionment and even hostility towards the new culture as values and habits conflict with local attitudes and beliefs.
The beginning resolution phase
recovery as confidence and understanding of the new culture grows.
The effective functioning stage
adjustment as the individual learns how to fit into the new cultural environment.
acculturation
The changes that groups and individuals undergo when they come into contact with another culture. It can also mean competence in a second culture without complete acceptance. (p. 781)
assimilation
(In cultural psychology) acculturation that involves absorption into the dominant culture and abandonment of the traditional culture (p. 781)
fusion
Acculturation that involves combining two cultures to form a new culture (p. 781)
alternation
Acculturation that involves bicultural competence (p. 781)
ethnicity
The characteristic of shared geographic, language, cultural and religious origins (p. 781)
ethnic identity
The characteristic whereby members of an ethnic group identify ‘us’ in relation to ‘them’ using aspects of shared culture, language or religion (p. 781)
personal identity
A sense of who we are as individuals (p. 781)
social identity
Our sense of belonging to a larger group (p. 782)
sex
The biological attributes that differentiate males from females (p. 782)
gender
The psychological meaning of being male or female; the roles and behaviours that cultures deem appropriate for men and women (pp. 507, 782)
xenophobia
The fear or hatred of foreigners, or anything foreign and unfamiliar (p. 783)
cultural stereotypes
Generalised views that we hold about particular groups of people — the belief that all members of a particular cultural group share common traits or behaviours (p. 783)
Stereotypes accentuate group differences.
Us–them thinking (chapter 17) results in people focusing on the differences between cultural groups and ignoring the similarities that exist between them.
Stereotypes create selective thinking.
People only see what reinforces the cultural stereotype and reject any perceptions that do not fit.
Stereotypes assume homogeneity in other groups.
People recognise dissimilarity between members of their own cultural group but assume that all members of another culture behave the same way.
ethnocentrism
The tendency for a person's own culture to influence the way they view the rest of the world (p. 784)
prejudice
Judging people based on negative stereotypes (pp. 693, 784)
racial prejudice
Negative stereotypes about members of another racial group or a cultural practice (p. 784)
racism
The pervasive and systematic assumption of the inferiority of certain groups and the different and unfair treatment of those groups on the basis of that assumed inferiority (p. 785)
discrimination
The behavioural component of prejudiced attitudes (pp. 693, 785)
Reducing predjudice-The macro level.
Federal and state governments should lead the way in the form of legislation, policy and funding aimed at reducing the incidence of racism. Public statements that condemn racism should be put forward in the media to promote social change.
Reducing predjudice-The institutional level.
Institutions, professions and community groups should review their own policies and practices on racism and conduct anti-racism training programs that promote intercultural understanding.
Reducing predjudice-Psychology.
The discipline and profession of psychology should formally rebut any assertion that reinforces attribution biases or any statement that asserts racial superiority or inferiority on any psychological attribute. APS accredited programs in undergraduate psychology should include courses on cross-cultural issues.
Reducing predjudice-Individual.
Individuals can contribute by becoming active members of groups that encourage tolerance and committing a certain amount of time to these issues.
contact hypothesis
The hypothesis that the more contact there is between people from different groups, the more they will break down any barriers or prejudices (p. 787)
discursive psychology
An approach to psychology that treats spoken and written text as contributing to the construction of people's reality, not just a reflection of underlying cognition (p. 787)
indigenous people
The original inhabitants of a land or country (p. 788)
indigenous psychology
Promotes psychologies that are not imposed; that are influenced by the cultural contexts in which people live; that are developed from within the culture; and that result in locally relevant psychological knowledge (p. 788)
Aboriginality
(Australian government definition) An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person is a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent, who identifies as such and is accepted as such by the community in which they live (p. 795)
Maori identity
lived as separate iwi, which can be loosely translated to mean ‘tribes’. Within the iwi were further social divisions — hapu, a sub-tribal grouping, and whanau, extended family groupings.
Marae
the communal meeting place. Marae traditions still remain strong today.
Pakeha
Non-Maori (p. 803)
kinesics
The use of gestures, movements and facial expressions (p. 810)
oculesics
The use of eye movements and eye contact (p. 810)
haptics
The use of touch to accompany communication (p. 810)
proxemics
The use of space between people while communicating (p. 810)
chronemics
The use of time in communication (p. 810)
vocalics
The use of vocal cues such as pitch, volume and tempo (p. 810)
social constructionism
The postmodern theory that there are no universal truths because people are continually constructing knowledge based on their own individual and cultural experiences (p. 811)
Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
A hypothesis that suggests that speakers of different languages actually think differently, and do so because of the differences in their languages (p. 812)
cultural competence
A person's effectiveness in communicating and behaving appropriately with people from another culture, both in terms of understanding and being understood (p. 814)
(Burton, Lorelle. Psychology: Australian and New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Australia, p. G-5).
(Burton, Lorelle. Psychology: Australian and New Zealand Edition, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Australia, p. G-5).
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