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25 Cards in this Set

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  • 3rd side (hint)
study of methods for evaluating arguements
set of statements, one of which, called the conclusion, is affirmed on the basis of the others, which are called the premises.
valid arguement
it is necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true
invalid arguement
it is NOT necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true
sound arguement
it is VALID, and all its PREMISES are TRUE
Unsound arguement
is one that either is invalid or has at least one false premise
deductive logic
the part of logic that concerns tests for validity and invalidity
a substitution instance whose premises are well-known truths and whose conclusion is a well known falsehood
Modus ponens
if A, then B. A. so, b
Modus tollens
if A, then B. not B, so not A
Hypothetical syllogism
If A, then B. If B, then C. So, If A, then C.
Disjunctive syllogism
Either A or B. Not A. so, B.
Constructive Dilemma
either A or B. If A, then C. If B, then D. So, either C or D.
Denying the antecedent
If A, then B. Not A. so, not B.
Affirming the consequent
if A, then B. B. so, A
strong arguement
it is probable that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true
weak arguement
it is not probable that if the premises are true then the conclusion is true
cogent arguement
it is strong, and all of its premises are true
uncogent arguement
either weak, or strong with one false premise
inductive logic
part of logic that is concerned with strength and weakness
premise indicators
because, since, for, as, after all, based on the reason that
conclusion indicators
so, therefore, hence, thus, consequently, accordingly, it follows that
acknowledgement of a fact or possibility that could render the arguement invalid/weak...
discount indicators
although, even though,
a word/statement that indicates the author is tentative about a premise... IE i think that, it seems that, perhaps, maybe