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25 Cards in this Set
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logic

study of methods for evaluating arguements

method


arguement

set of statements, one of which, called the conclusion, is affirmed on the basis of the others, which are called the premises.



valid arguement

it is necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true



invalid arguement

it is NOT necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true



sound arguement

it is VALID, and all its PREMISES are TRUE



Unsound arguement

is one that either is invalid or has at least one false premise



deductive logic

the part of logic that concerns tests for validity and invalidity



counterexample

a substitution instance whose premises are wellknown truths and whose conclusion is a well known falsehood



Modus ponens

if A, then B. A. so, b



Modus tollens

if A, then B. not B, so not A



Hypothetical syllogism

If A, then B. If B, then C. So, If A, then C.



Disjunctive syllogism

Either A or B. Not A. so, B.



Constructive Dilemma

either A or B. If A, then C. If B, then D. So, either C or D.



Denying the antecedent

If A, then B. Not A. so, not B.



Affirming the consequent

if A, then B. B. so, A



strong arguement

it is probable that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true



weak arguement

it is not probable that if the premises are true then the conclusion is true



cogent arguement

it is strong, and all of its premises are true



uncogent arguement

either weak, or strong with one false premise



inductive logic

part of logic that is concerned with strength and weakness



premise indicators

because, since, for, as, after all, based on the reason that



conclusion indicators

so, therefore, hence, thus, consequently, accordingly, it follows that



discount

acknowledgement of a fact or possibility that could render the arguement invalid/weak...



discount indicators

although, even though,



hedge

a word/statement that indicates the author is tentative about a premise... IE i think that, it seems that, perhaps, maybe

