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 logic study of methods for evaluating arguements method arguement set of statements, one of which, called the conclusion, is affirmed on the basis of the others, which are called the premises. valid arguement it is necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true invalid arguement it is NOT necessary that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true sound arguement it is VALID, and all its PREMISES are TRUE Unsound arguement is one that either is invalid or has at least one false premise deductive logic the part of logic that concerns tests for validity and invalidity counterexample a substitution instance whose premises are well-known truths and whose conclusion is a well known falsehood Modus ponens if A, then B. A. so, b Modus tollens if A, then B. not B, so not A Hypothetical syllogism If A, then B. If B, then C. So, If A, then C. Disjunctive syllogism Either A or B. Not A. so, B. Constructive Dilemma either A or B. If A, then C. If B, then D. So, either C or D. Denying the antecedent If A, then B. Not A. so, not B. Affirming the consequent if A, then B. B. so, A strong arguement it is probable that if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true weak arguement it is not probable that if the premises are true then the conclusion is true cogent arguement it is strong, and all of its premises are true uncogent arguement either weak, or strong with one false premise inductive logic part of logic that is concerned with strength and weakness premise indicators because, since, for, as, after all, based on the reason that conclusion indicators so, therefore, hence, thus, consequently, accordingly, it follows that discount acknowledgement of a fact or possibility that could render the arguement invalid/weak... discount indicators although, even though, hedge a word/statement that indicates the author is tentative about a premise... IE i think that, it seems that, perhaps, maybe