Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
categorical logic rules
1. at least one affirmative premise 2. if a premise is negative the conclusion is negative and vise versa 3. middle term must be distributed at least once 4. if it is distributed in the conclusion it must be distributed in a premise
hypothetical syllogisms
"if/then" statements
2 premises
1 conclusion
valid is affirming the antecedent or denying the consequent
disjuctive syllogisms
"either P or Q" statements
is valid is one of the disjuncts is denied and the other is affirmed in the conclusion
includes all members of a class
does not include all members of a class
a syllogism missing a premise (1 premise and 1 conclusion)
valid argument
if when all premises are true the conclusion cannot be false
sound argument
is a valid argument and all premises are true
against the person (ad hominem)
an argument is rejected on the bases of some irrelevant fact about the author of or the person presenting the claim
ex. Denying an argument on abortion just because the arguer is a priest
appeal to authority
arguing for some point not because it is well grounded in fact or logic but because of the authority of the person who presented it
ex. Believing a scientist when they say abortion is wrong even thought they do not work in women's science
slippery slope
when a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question
ex. The US shouldn't get involved militarily in other countries. Once the government sends in a few troops, it will then send in thousands to die
false dilemma
the situation in which two alternative points are held to be the only two options, when in reality there exist other options
ex. mark is late for work. either his car broke down or he overslept.
appeal to force
an argument where force is given as a justification for the conclusion
ex. if you do not agree that black is the best color i will have to take serious measures.
appeal to pity
when someone tries to win support for their argument by exploiting their opponent's feelings of pity or guilt
ex. i really deserve a raise. unless i make more money i may lose my home.
straw person
based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position
ex. I dont think children should play in the streets. I think it would be foolish to lock up children all day with no fresh air.
hasty generalization
draws conclusions about a population based on too little sample or evidence
ex. i love the first song so i'll love the rest of the cd
begging the question
argument in which a premise presupposes the conclusion in some way (circular reasoning)
ex. happiness is total contentment because a totally content person is someone who is always happy
complex question
when someone asks a question that presupposes something that has not been proven
ex. Are you still holding to your own simple-minded views and denying i have wiser and more intelligent ideas?
argument from ignorance
when a premise is claimed to be true only because is have not been proven false or vise versa
ex. no one saw her get pushed so she must have fell
argument to the masses
makes an emotion appeal to the public based on culture
ex. Be American and buy American cars. Vouched for by your ancestors.
false cause
one thing causes another simply because the two are associted on a regular basis
ex. after refusing to send on a chain letter that threatens injury you break your arm.
categorical "a" statement
every s is p (d/u)
categorical "e" statment
no s is p (d/d)
categorical "i" statment
some s is p (u/u)
categorical "o" statement
some s is not p (u/d)