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93 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Deductive Argument
An argument where the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion. The conclusion is implicitly contained in the premises.

Example of Deductive Argument
All humans are mortal
John is a human
Therefore, John is mortal.
Definition of Inductive Argument
The truth of the premises makes it likely/probable that the conclusion is also true.

Example of Inductive Argument
John has been a moderate drinker for 20 years.
No one has seen John get drunk.
Therefore, he won’t get drunk at the party tonight.
Counterfactual Argument
An argument intentionally developed from a false premise. There are two types of counterfactual argument: an hypothetical argument and reduction ad absurdum argument.

Example of hypothetical argument
If I am Prime Minister, I would ban smoking throughout the country.
Definition of Reference Theory of Meaning
According to this view, the meaning of a word consists in what it refers to. In other words, the meaning of a term (means word) consists of its reference class, which is the class of objects to which the term refers.

Example of Reference Theory of Meaning
The term cat refers to all the actual cats in the world.
Definition of Idea Theory of Meaning
Definition of Idea Theory of Meaning
The meaning of a word consists of the idea or mental image that is associated with the word.

Example of Idea Theory of Meaning
The meaning of the word cat refers to the image or idea in the mind associated with the word ‘cat’.
Definition of Meaning as Used
Words have meaning only when they are used in sentences. Without such a context, they have no meaning. The meaning of a sentence is to be found in its use. To know what a sentence means we need to ask what the speaker or writer in a particular context using the sentence to do.
Example of Meaning as Used
The meaning of the word or term ‘strike’ will depend upon the rest of the words in the sentence and it will also depend upon the larger context of the sentence and what the speaker intends.

Don’t strike that child. (i.e hit)
The strike was over wages (i.e refusal to work)
Strike three! (i.e. the batter is out)
Definition of Descriptive Function
Language used to describe something that is factual.


Example of Descriptive Function
My cat is black and orange.
Definition of Evaluative Function
Language used to evaluate (to make value judgments) about something.

Example of Evaluative Function
My cat is the best cat in the city
Definition of Emotive Function
Language used to express emotions

Example of Emotive Function
Damn! Or Ouch! When accidentally hurting oneself.
Definition of Evocative Function
Language used for the purpose of evoking certain emotions and feelings in an audience

Example of Evocative Function
T.S Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”
E.G. “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons”
Definition of Persuasive Function
Language used to persuade people to accept something or to act in a certain way. It can come in the form of a rational or non-rational argument.

Example of Persuasive Function
You shouldn’t take astrology seriously. There is no scientific basis for it.
Definition of Interrogative Function
Language used to elicit information from another. It is most often done in the form of a question.

Example of Interrogative Function
“Is that a basketball?”
Definition of Directive Function
Language used to tell others to do something

Example of Directive Function
Take these pills twice a day
Definition of Performative Function
These utterances are themselves regarded as actions. They are actions that consist of saying certain words.

Example of Performative Function
A pastor saying ‘I now pronounce you husband and wife’ in a wedding ceremony.
Definition of Recreational Function
Language used to amuse ourselves and others.

Example of Recreational Function
Jokes and Stories.
Definition of Reportive Definition
A reportive definition conveys the information needed to use a word correctly. The correct use of a word consists of its standard usage.

Example of Reportive Definition
Dictionaries always give you reportive definitions. Dictionary’s definition of the word ‘create’.
Definition of Stipulative Definition
A stipulative definition is where we fix a particular meaning for a word. We define a category of the word that we use. This is not merely reporting a standard usage of the word. We stipulate the precise meaning that is to be attached to key words. To explicitly state a stipulated meaning reduces the risk of misunderstanding by providing clarity and precision.

Example of Stipulative Definition
The creation of the word ‘blogger’ to refer to people who write blogs and publish them in the internet.
Definition of Essentialist Definition
Definition that reveals the essential nature of words like ‘justice’, ‘truth’ and ‘freedom’. These definitions are like compressed theories about the nature of what is being defined.

Example of Essentialist Definition
History is Philosophy teaching by examples – Thucydides
Descartes definition of Being as ‘I think, therefore I am’
Five Methods of Definition
Genus-Species
To define a word by referring to a class (genus) of which the word is a member & to specify how it is different (species)

Example
A sea-plane (species) is an airplane (genus) that is designed to take off and land on a body of water.
Ostensive
To define a word by giving examples.

Example
Verbal examples or pointing: Pointing at a cat to define cat.
By Synonym
To define a word by giving a synonym.

Example
“Effulgent” means the same as “radiant”
Contextual
To define a word by using that word in a standard context and providing a different sentence that does not use the word but has the same meaning.

Example
The argument has soundness means the same as an argument has both logical strength and true premises
Operational
To define a word by establishing a rule whereby the word is to applied only when a specified test or operation yields a certain result

Example
A genius is anyone who scores over 140 on a standard I.Q. test.
Too Broad
A definition is too broad when the defining phrase refers to some things that are not included in the reference of the term being defined. The definition includes more than it should.

Example
A typewriter is a means of writing
(Term) (Defining phrase)
Too Narrow
A definition is too narrow when the defining phrase fails to refer to some things that are included in the reference of the term being defined.

Example
A school is an institution that teaches children how to read and write.
(Term) (Defining Phrase)
Too Broad and Too Narrow
A definition is too broad and too narrow when the defining phrase fails to refers to some things that are included and also refers to some things that are not included in the reference of the term being defined.

Example

A pen is an instrument designed for writing words.
Circular Definition
A circular definition is one that includes the term being defined in the definition.

Example
A surgeon is a person who practices surgery
Obscure Definition
A definition that uses vague, obscure or metaphorical language and fails to express clearly the meaning of the term being defined.

Example
A fact is anything that rubs the corners off our prejudices (Metaphorical)
A marathon is a long foot-race (vague)
A grampus is a dolphin-like cetacean. (Scientific-obscure)
Vague Sentence
A vague sentence is one that lacks a precise meaning.


Example
Lots of people own two television sets.
Ambiguous Sentence
A sentence where there are two or more different but usually precise meanings.

Example
Applicants must hold a diploma in early childhood education or have equivalent work experience.
THE PRINCIPLE OF CHARITY
This principle requires us to pick the stronger, more plausible meaning to your opponent’s position.
Double Referential Ambiguity
When a word or phrase could, in the context of a particular sentence refer to two or more properties or things.

Example
Pavarotti is a big star. The word ‘big’ could refer to fat or famous.
Distributive/Collective Ambiguity
Occurs when it is unclear if the term refers to the individual members of a group (distributively) or the whole group (collectively).

Example
Americans make more telephone calls than Canadians.
Grammatical Ambiguity
When the grammatical structure of a sentence allows two
interpretations, each of which gives rise to a different meaning.

Example
John decided to quit smoking while driving to Toronto.
Use & Mention Ambiguity
This is when an ambiguity arises through the failure to distinguish between using and mentioning a word or phrase.

Example
Tom said I was angry
Tom said, “I was angry”
Analytic Statement
An analytic statement is true by definition. Mathematic statements are always analytic.

Example
All bachelors are unmarried adult males.
Contradictory Statement
A contradictory statement is false by definition.

Example
Some bachelors are married adult males.
Synthetic Statement
A synthetic statement is a statement whose truth and falsity is not solely dependent upon the meanings of the words.

Example
Adam is happy today.
Roses are pretty. (By definition, pretty is not associated with roses)
Necessary Condition
“X” is a necessary condition for “y” if, and only if, when “x” is false “y” must also be false ( or when “x” is absent “y” cannot occur) A necessary condition for “y” is something whose falsity or absence prevents “y” but whose truth or presence does not guarantee “y”.

Example
Being at least 18 years of age is a necessary condition for being eligible to vote in federal elections in Canada
Sufficient Condition
“X’ is a sufficient condition for “y” if, and only if, when “X” is true “Y” must also be true (or when “X” is present “Y” must occur). A sufficient condition for “Y” is something whose truth or presence guarantees “Y”, but whose falsity or absence does not prevent “Y”.

Example
Holding a B.A from the University is a sufficient condition for being a member of the University Alumni Association.
Definition of Jointly Sufficient Conditions
Whenever we can list all the Necessary conditions for something, we will have listed the conditions that are known as Jointly Sufficient conditions.
The Correspondence Theory
Truth consists of correspondence between a statement and a fact. When the consequence does not hold, the statement is a false.

Example
The statement “It is raining outside the museum” is true if and only if it is actually raining outside the museum.
The Coherence Theory
A belief or statement is true if, and only if, it coheres with a system of beliefs or statements.

Example
The statement “Jesus walks on water” is true if and only if it is within the context of the Bible.
The Pragmatic Theory
A statement is true if, and only if, it leads to the successful solution of a real problem.

Example
The statement “to open a jar you need to turn the lid counter clockwise” is true, if and only if this action of turning the lid counter clockwise successfully solves the problem of opening the jar.
Empirical Statement
An empirical statement is that which that can be observed and checked in reality. Facts of reality that is observable by the five senses.

Example
The statement “John shaved off his moustache” is an empirical statement because it can be observed and checked in reality through the five senses by looking at John to ascertain if he has shaved off his moustache or not.
Non Empirical Statement
A statement that is NOT observable and checkable in reality through the five senses

The statement “God is Eternal and Unchanging” is non-empirical because this fact cannot be checked or observed through the five senses.
Universal Empirical Statement
A statement that is observable and checkable in reality through the five senses about an entire class or all things.

Example
The statement that is “All Swans are white” is a universal empirical statement.
Appeal to Pity
Under no circumstance should pity provide support for a conclusion. Generating pity in a listener is not providing rational grounds for the truth of the conclusion. Logical arguments are about providing logical grounds. Simply providing pity is not providing logical grounds for the conclusion.

Example
John's wife left him and he lost all his money so he should be allowed to pass this course.
Appeal to Ignorance
Under no circumstances should ignorance or the lack of knowledge constitute rational grounds for accepting a conclusion

Example
I believe in astrology. I can't actually prove it is true, but nobody can disprove it.
Appeal to Force
Under no circumstance is force or the threat of force a good reason for accepting a conclusion.

Example
If you don't agree with me, lets step outside and settle this matter man to man.
Appeal to Popularity
Under no circumstance should popularity be used as a rational grounds for accepting a conclusion

Example
Astrology is unscientific nonsense. Nobody believes it any longer.
Appeal to Irrelevant Authority
Under no circumstance should an irrelevant authority or source of information be used as a rational grounds for accepting a conclusion.

Example
Einstein believed that the universe was not created by chance. If belief in God made sense to him, it makes sense to me.
Begging the Question
An argument begs the question when its premises presuppose (directly or indirectly) the truth of its conclusion.

Example
The Bible frequently says that it is the word of God and the word of God must obviously be true. Therefore, whatever the Bible says is true
Fallacy of Inconsistency
An area that contains (implicitly or explicitly) a contradiction between premises.

Example ONE
John is older than Jane.
Jane is older than John.
Fallacy of Equivocation
Where a premise has two interpretations, one acceptable and one unacceptable, and when it is the unacceptable interpretation that is required by the conclusion.

Example
Noisy children are a real headache.
An aspirin will make a headache go away.
Therefore, an aspirin will make noisy children go away.
Fallacy of False Dichotomy
When a premise of an argument present us with a choice between two alternatives and assumes that they are “exhaustive” or “exclusive” or both, when in fact they are not.

Example
I am against giving aid to countries where people are starving. We will never eradicate starvation completely, so it is a waste of time to try.
Fallacy of Composition
The fallacy of assuming that when a property applies to all the members of the class/group, it must, therefore, apply to the class/group as a whole.

Example
Every member of the York Club is wealthy. Therefore, the York Club is wealthy.
Fallacy of Division
The fallacy of assuming that when a property applies to a class/group as a whole, it must, therefore apply to all the members of that class/group.

Example
The Detroit Red Wings are the best team in the N.H.L. Therefore, they have the best goalies.
Fallacy of All of Nothing
The fallacy of assuming that something either ALWAYS has a certain property or NEVER has it. (A subset of false dichotomy)

Example
I can’t lend you $10.00. If I loaned $10.00 to all the people who ask me, then I’d be broke.
Fallacy of Ad Hominem Fallacy
“Abusing the person” or “attack on the person”. Using personal information about the speaker to try to falsify the speaker’s argument.

Example
Supporters of the death penalty are blood thirsty people who are purely interested in vengeance and not deterrence.
Tu Quoque Fallacy
A special case of the Ad Hominem and also known as the “Two Wrongs" Fallacy in latin, Tu Quoque is an attempt to avoid an accusation by using that same accusation back at the accusers.

Example
Wilma: You cheated on your income tax. Don’t you realize that’s wrong?
John: You cheated on your income tax too last year. Have you forgotten about that?
Strawman Fallacy
Misrepresenting your opponent’s position (making it weaker) in order to attack the weaker interpretation of your opponent’s position.

Example
I object to people who oppose capital punishment because they believe lives of murderers are more important than the lives of policemen and others who protect us.
Slippery Slope Fallacy
Where the premises present a chain of predictions, each of which may be very strong, but the chain, as a whole, is weak. The conclusion of such an argument is not adequately supported.

Example
“A” will probably lead to “B”. “B” will probably lead to “C”, “C” will probably lead to “D”. Therefore, “A” will probably lead to “D”.

If abortion becomes legal, there will be an increase in abortion. when abortion is commonplace, there will be lack of respect for human life. This will lead to increase in euthanasia of all kinds.
Post Hoc Fallacy
To argue that something that occurs before some event must, therefore, be its cause.

Example
The stove in your house was working until you moved in, but the next day it was not working anymore. You must have done something, which caused the problem.
Confusing Cause and Effect
When an “effect” is wrongly identified as a “cause” and the “cause” is wrongly identified as the ‘effect’

Example
According to a report, married couples with no children have more disposable income than married couples with children. This shows that affluence causes declining birth rates.
Common Cause
When we claim that there is a causal relation between A + B when in fact, both A + B are caused by a third factor: C.

Example
Studies show that people generally regarded as successful have much larger vocabularies than average. Having an extensive vocabulary is an important factor in producing success.
Inductive generalization
All inductive generalizations have the following form:
Z% of observed Fs are G
It is probable, there fore that Z% of all Fs are G

Example
60% of students at the University of Ottawa who were questioned believe in God.
It is probable, therefore, that 60% of all students at the University of Ottawa believe in God.
Statistical syllogism
All statistical syllogisms have the following forms
Z% of all Fs are G
X is an F
It is probable to the degree 0.Z, therefore that X is a G.

Example
60% of all students at the University of Ottawa believe in God.
Fred is a student at the University of Ottawa.
It is probable to the degree 0.6, therefore, that Fred believes in God.
Induction by confirmation
Induction by Confirmation arguments have the following form:

If h then O.
O.
Therefore, that h.

Example
If the theory of general relativity is true, light rays passing near the sun will be bent.
During the solar eclipse of 1919, it was observed that light rays passing near the sun were deflected.
It is probable, therefore, that the general theory of relativity is true.
Analogical reasoning
To reason by analogy is to compare two things so as to make the more difficult thing more understandable.


Example
Last year I used fertilizer on my strawberries and got about 20 per cent more strawberries. You should do the same with your strawberries, since you’ve got the same kind of soil. You will most likely get more strawberries too.
Analogical argument by relations
Analogical argument by relations has the following form:

X is to Y as A is to B
X is R to Y
It is probable there fore that A is R is to B .

Example
Giving clean needles to prison inmates to stop the spread of AIDS from the use of dirty needles is ridiculous. It is like giving robbers normal bullets instead of dum-dum bullets, which is more damaging to the victim.
Analogical argument by properties
An analogical argument by Properties has the following form:

X has A, B, C
Y has A, B
It is probable, therefore, that Y has C.

Example
Canada Geese are water birds that nest in Canada in early spring and migrate south for the winter months. Ducks are also water birds that nest in Canada in early spring. Therefore ducks probably migrate south for the winter also.
Truth-Functional Statements
A sub-class of complex statements that are distinguished by the way their truth is determined. Truth of truth-functional statements is determined by the truth of its component statements

Example
Either I lost the keys, or they have been stolen.
Simple Statement
One that does not contain any other statement as a part.

Example
I lost the keys.
Complex Statement
One that contains another statement as a component part.

Example
Either I lost the keys, or they have been stolen.
Negation
A negation is true when its component statement is false, and false when its component statement is true. The statement p is false is a negation.

Example
It is false that falcons mate while flying.
(If the statement falcons mate while flying is false, the whole statement is true. If they do mate while flying, then the statement is false.
Conjunction
A statement that is true only if both its component statements are true. If either conjunct is false, that the conjunction as a whole is false. The statement p and q is a conjunction. It is true only when p is true and q is true; it is false when p is false, or when q is false or when both p and q are false.

Example
John and Mary have been married for six years, and they have no children.
Disjunction
A statement that is true if either or both its component statements is true. If both disjuncts are false then the disjunction as a whole is false. The statement p or q is a disjunction. It is true when p is true or when q is true or when p and q are true. It is false when both p and q are false.

Example
You should either fix his lawnmowner or buy him a new one.
Implication
The statement if p then q is an implication. The implication such as p then q is false only when p is true and q is false. In all other cases, it is true.

Example
If someone takes horoscopes seriously, then that person must be very gullible.
Formal Validity
A formally valid argument is defined as an arugment such that, if its premises are true, then its conclusion must also be true.
Valid Argument Form
A valid argument form is any set of truth-functional statements such that every argument with that form is a valid argument. To show that an argument is valid, we only need to show that it has a valid argument form.
Formal Invalidity
An argument that lacks formal validity; if its premises are true, its conclusion may nevertheless turn out to be false.
Affirming the Antecedent
If P then Q,
P
Therefore, Q

Example
If the police knew John had a motive for the crime, then he would be a suspect. The police know John have a motive, therefore John is a crime.
Denying the Consequent
Example
If the police knew John had a motive for the crime, then he would be a suspect. John is not a suspect, therefore the police do not know John had a motive.
Chain Argument
If P then q
If q then r
Therefore, if p then r

Example
If you buy a new coat, you cannot buy textbooks. If you don’t have textbooks, your grades will suffer. So if you get a new coat, your grades will surfer.
Disjunctive Syllogism
Either P or Q
Not-P
Therefore, Q

Example
There are only two treatments for my condition: either surgery or physiotherapy. My doctor wants me to start a physiotherapy program.
Fallacy of Denying the Antecedent
If P then Q
Not-P
Therefore Not-Q

Example
If the police knew John had a motive for the crime, then he would be a suspect. The police do not know John had a motive. Therefore, he is not a suspect.
Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent
If p then q
Q
Therefore p

Example
If the police knew John had a motive for the crime, then he would be a suspect. John is a suspect, therefore the police must know that he has a motive for the crime.
Definition of Reasoning
Reasoning is the actively linking thoughts together in such a way that one thought provides support for another thought. Active process of reasoning is called inference.
Definition of Statement
A statement is a sentence that is used to make a claim that is either true or false.

Example of a Statement
John’s car is red in color.
Definition of Premise
Premise is a statement that can be used to justify a conclusion
Definition of Logical Strength
An argument has logical strength when its premises, if true actually provide support for its conclusion. Logical strength refers to inferential connection between premises and conclusion of an argument.

Example of Logical Strength
John is taller than Jane. Jane is taller than June. Therefore, June is shorter than John.
Definition of Soundness
An argument that has both logical strength and true premises.

Example of Soundness
Toronto is in Ontario. Ontario is in Canada. Therefore, Toronto is in Canada.