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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The who or what a paragraph is about is...
The topic
Using the topic as a guide, the _________ focuses on the author’s slant or view that is expressed about the topic. The main idea, like the topic, must be fine tuned. It must be broad enough to include all the details presented in the passage but specific enough to reveal the author’s slant.
Main idea
The ____________ should be expressed in one complete sentence and it should be inclusive of all the ideas included in the passage.
stated main idea
When the main idea is not directly stated in a passage, it is called an ______________.
unstated or implied main idea
__________ support, explain, and prove main ideas.
Major details
___________ support, explain, and prove major details.
Minor details
A good __________ includes the topic, the main idea and the significant supporting details.
summary
Paragraphs can list causes and effects, problems and solutions, or reasons and consequences.
Cause/Effect
Divides a large group into smaller groups and states characteristics that are used to separate the groups.
Classification
Writings emphasize the similarities and difference between two or more subjects.
Comparison/Contrast
Writings that list the meaning for a word or phrase
Definition
States a main idea about a group of items, concepts, or people. The statement is often broadly stated.
Generalization and Example
Writings contain a list of steps or stages in the order they occur or the order in which they should occur.
Process
Writings list events or activities in the order in which they occur or occurred. Dates or times are often included.
Time Order
Contains a list in no particular order.
Simple Listing
Emphasize the location of items or characteristics. A mental picture of the place being described is often created.
Spatial Order
Sometimes words in a sentence are defined for the reader. The definition may come first in a sentence, but many times it follows a word and is set off by commas, dashes, or parentheses.
Definition
An author may decide that a reader will better understand the meaning of a sentence if he or she includes contrasting words.
Antonyms
An author may decide that a reader will better understand the meaning of a sentence if he or she includes similar words.
Synonyms
Many times you will have to read a passage that only hint at or implies what the author is trying to say. When faced with such reading passages, you must depend on your ability to understand the details in the passage so you can logically reason out the meanings of unfamiliar words.
General meaning of the passage
The word “affix” refers to something that can be attached or fastened to something else. Many words in the English language have such attachments.
prefixes and suffixes
What are the 3 major purposes of a author?
Inform, Persuade, and Entertain
exemplify ideas and refer to historical information in written sources. A statement that can be proven true or false.
Fact
What one thinks, feels, or believes. A statement of feeling that cannot be proven right or wrong.
Opinion
a figure of speech which directly compares two unlike things without using the words “like” or “as”.
Metaphors
a figure of speech which directly compares two unlike things using the words “like” or “as”.
Similes
A figure of speech that uses words to say one thing, but the writer really means the opposite of what is said.
Verbal Irony
a figure of speech that gives human characteristics to nonhuman objects
Personification
A figure of speech that does not make sense literally, but because it has been used over the years it has taken on its own meaning.
Idioms
reflects how the author feels about what he or she has written.
Tone
represents a highly personal and unreasoned distortion of judgment.
Bias
A discrepancy exists between the meaning of what the speaker says and what the situation indicates the speaker means by it.
Irony
is the opinion or judgment that each of us possesses
Point of view
What is an argument?
An argument is a piece of writing that makes an assertion and provides supporting evidence to support that assertion. Two types of arguments are common: inductive and deductive.
the author moves from specific details to a general conclusion.
Inductive Argument
the author begins with a general conclusion and moves to specifics.
Deductive Argument
Identify the issue the author is arguing.
Basically, you will ask the same question as when you are trying to determine the main idea: "What is the author saying about the topic?"
Signal words can also point you to the issue. Some signal words and phrases are "in summary," "consequently," "therefore," "for these reasons," "thus," "since," "it is clear that," etc.
Identify the support for the argument.
This is the evidence the author provides, and it can be in the form of personal experience, examples, statistics, comparisons and analogies, and direct quotes.
Evaluate the support.
Generally, for an argument to be regarded seriously, the writer needs to back it up with facts, expert opinions, statistics, and other forms of reasonable evidence.
Evaluate the argument.
What is your overall evaluation of the argument?

Is it convincing?

Is the argument inductive or deductive?