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160 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Freud thought that the Oedipal complex would emerge during the ________ stage of psychosexual development.
phallic
Chase understands that his mother is a female and a "grown-up." Chase's understanding demonstrates his capacity to categorize people, or ________.
person perception
Bowlby's goal-corrected partnership is:
the change in the attachment relationship that occurs around age four.
________ is the term Baumrind used to describe the dimension of parenting that involves level of expectations
Maturity demands
The parenting style that is high control and maturity demands, but low in nurturance and communication is ________.
authoritarian
Mr. Smith explains to his son, Aaron, exactly what he has done that is wrong and why it is not acceptable. Only after he has explained does he actually punish Aaron. Mr. Smith is using a discipline strategy known as ________.
inductive discipline
All of the following statements are true EXCEPT:
Strong verbal aggression is linked to positive outcomes with children.
In the United States in the year 2000, ________ of children lived in two parent families.
over 75%
Annie recently got a divorce. Consequently, she can expect her income to drop by about ________.
40-50%
Jonie and Janine are toddlers. They like to play together, but their idea of "together" is side by side with similar toys. This type of play is called ________.
parallel
Behavior that is intended to harm another person or object is called ________.
aggression
Mickey is a Boy Scout. He has been taught to go out of his way to help others. According to your text, this might be because the Boy Scouts place a lot of emphasis on ________.
prosocial behavior
Cyndi Saw that her mother was crying, so she offered her mother her teddy bear. Cyndi is demonstrating ________.
empathy
Greg knows that he is a boy and his sister is a girl. This understanding is called ________.
gender identity
Behavior that is atypical for one's gender but not the other gender is called ________.
cross-gender behavior
Freud and Erikson agreed that peers play an important role in child development.
False
The quality of the attachment relationship can predict behavior during the preschool years.
True
Authoritative parenting is associated with the most consistent positive outcomes for children.
True
African American children do not seem to have the same negative outcomes associated with physical punishment that white children experience.
True
Adults whose parents divorced are less likely to divorce themselves.
False
Children with group entry skills are able to join a play group quickly without spending time in observation.
False
If a girl is classified as a tomboy, she engages in cross-gender behavior.
True
According to research, most non-custodial fathers consistently fulfill their financial obligations to their children.
True
Which of the following statements is true regarding brain development in middle childhood?
Girls in this age range tend to be slower and weaker, but more coordinated than boys.
Sarah asked John to hand her a spoon from the drawer. "It's in the drawer on your left," she said. Sarah's directions to John indicate her ________.
relative right-left orientation
Which of the following statements is true regarding language development?
By age 5 or 6, most children have mastered their basic language skills.
Marcus was bitten by his neighbor's dog. From that experience, Marcus came to the conclusion that strange dogs can be dangerous so she should not try to pet them. Marcus' conclusions demonstrate his ________.
inductive reasoning
Pigs are animals; hammers are tools. A child who understands this understands the concept known as ________.
class inclusion
Some kinds of information become so ingrained in the long-term memory that recall is very quick -- without the need for short-term memory capacity. This is called ________.
automaticity
The focus of education in the 6 to 12 year age range is ________.
literacy
Tests that are scored based on a comparison to the average test score of a larger sample are called ________ tests.
standardized
Musical, naturalist, and intrapersonal are categories of intelligence suggested by ________.
Howard Gardner
Which of the following is true regarding second- language learners?
Almost half of U.S. classrooms have at least one LEP student.
The tendency to focus on the details of a task is called ________.
an analytical style
When members of a culture value group progress over individual progress, we refer to their culture as being ________.
collectivist
According to research studies, North Americans believe in ________ ability, while Asians tend to believe ________.
innate; hard work improves ability
Tara has difficulty reading. According to your text, Tara's problem is called ________.
dyslexia
Which of the following is the most common reason for a child to be receiving special education services?
learning disability
Two growth spurts that occur in the brain during middle childhood occur in the cerebral cortex.
True
Obesity is the most serious long-term health risk in middle childhood.
False
Decentration is thinking that cannot take multiple variables into account.
False
The basis for cognitive development is thought to be the increases in processing efficiency that occur with age.
True
Mathematical/spatial intelligence is one of three types of intelligence suggested by Sternberg.
false
Every school has an ethos that effects its students.
True
Micayla does not like to get stuck in the details. She prefers to focus on the "big picture." Micayla uses a relational style.
True
Technically, dyslexia is a complete absence of the ability to read.
True
he fourth of Freud's psychosexual stages, during which the libido is dormant in favor of same sex peer relationships, is called ________.
latency
he part of the superego that includes a list of "don'ts" which, if violated, lead to feelings of guilt is the ________.
conscience
Melanie has been scolded for picking up the glass candle sticks in the living room. Now, even when her mother is not in the room, she does not touch them. According to your chapter, Melanie has learned ________.
self-regulation
Which of the following is true regarding children and their relationships in middle childhood?
Sibling relationships are less central to children than relationships with peers or friends.
Derrick likes to call other boys names and make fun of them on the playground. Derrick uses ________ aggression.
relational
Courtney knows that the other kids do not like her. She tends to isolate herself because of it; she does not even try to make friends anymore. Consequently, Courtney is lonely. According to your text, Courtney would be classified as a ________ child.
withdrawn/rejected
Agreeableness, extroversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness/intellect are ________.
The Big Five
Bruce describes himself as strong and trustworthy. Bruce is able understand the ________.
Psychological Self
The global evaluation of one's own worth is called ________.
self-esteem
Which of the following is true regarding self-care children?
Research suggests that self-care children are poorly adjusted in their peer relationships and school performance.
With regard to poverty effects, all of the following are true, EXCEPT:
Living in poverty does not correlate to parental involvement in school activities.
Which statement is true regarding poverty effects?
Poor children get sick more often than other children.
Some children from low-income families do well, while others fail to thrive. According to your text, this is most likely because of ________.
accumulated stresses
With regard to television viewing, which statement is true?
Children who behave aggressively may gravitate toward aggressive television programs.
Use of psychological constructs tapers off during middle childhood.
False
Piaget's first stage of moral development is called moral realism.
True
School-aged children maintain close attachments to their parents even though they are more independent than when they were younger.
True
The key concept of friendships as they progress through middle childhood is proximity.
False
Indifference and lack of warmth from parents are correlated with physical aggression in children.
True
The real key to self-esteem is the relationship between what a child wishes and what he is actually able to accomplish.
True
Self-care is associated with more negative outcomes when the self-care children live in high crime, high poverty neighborhoods.
True
The effects of poverty cross all barriers and are unaffected by the presence or absence of other stressors.
False
Which of the following hormones is associated with secondary sex characteristics in girls?
adrenal androgen
For normal puberty and regular monthly menstrual cycles, females must maintain average body of ________.
17-22%
What happens to muscle fibers during adolescence?
They become thicker and denser.
Which of the following statements is true regarding adolescent sexuality?
Social factors predict sexual behavior more than hormones do.
With regard to sexually transmitted disease, which statement is true?
Many adults object to sex education in school because they believe it will cause inactive teens to become sexually active.
All of the following are associated with higher teen pregnancy rates, EXCEPT:
Girls who have had a lot of communication about sex with their mothers are more likely to become pregnant.
________ is an eating disorder characterized by binging and purging.
bulimia
One mental disorder that seems to be prevalent among women who have had eating disorders is ________.
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Neuroimaging studies have lead to the conclusion that adolescent depression is linked to a dysfunction of the________.
pituitary gland
The final stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory that includes the ability to think abstractly is called ________.
formal operations
________ are goals that are based on a desire for self-improvement.
Task goals
Which statement is true regarding school models and transitions?
The intermediate, or middle school model has shown greater transitional problems moving into high school than the 8-4 system.
________ goals are associated with a greater sense of personal control and more positive attitudes in school.
Task
The general pattern for the success or failure of a student is high school results from ________.
the early days in the high school
Which child is most likely to drop out of school?
Gerald, who has a history of aggressive behavior
The thyroid gland is known as the master gland.
False
In industrialized countries, menarche generally occurs between the ages of 12 ½ and 13 ½ .
True
Among students who reported recent sexual activity, less than half reported using a condom in their most recent encounter.
True
As of 200, more teenaged mothers are marrying the fathers of their babies than in the last 25 years.
False
Parenting style interacts with sensation seeking behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of drug use.
True
Anorexia is not as common as bulimia, but it is considered the more deadly eating disorder.
True
Wyatt has gone to school in an 8-4 system. His parents can expect a decline in his school performance as he transitions.
True
Mathematically gifted high school girls tend to be more confident in their abilities than their male counterparts.
False
According to Erikson, the central crisis of adolescence is ________.
identity versus role confusion
Which of the following statements is true regarding teenaged employment?
The more hours a teenager works the greater the likelihood that the teen will use drugs.
________ is a sense of belonging to an ethnic group.
ethnic identity
Darius failed a test in his psychology class. He complained that it was because his teacher was unreasonable and did not like him. Darius has an ________.
external locus of control
Which of the following statement is true regarding family conflict?
Parent-teen conflict is more stressful for the parents than it is for the teens.
Which of the following statements is true regarding peer relationships in adolescence?
When values conflicts arise, teens are more likely to change friends than change their values to those of their friends.
A ________ is a reputation-based group with which individual teens are identified, either by peer association or by choice.
crowd
All of the following are factors that influence the onset of romantic relationships, EXCEPT:
By age 10, most children have a basic conception of what it means to be in love.
What does your text suggest to you about the origins of homosexuality?
Studies of various factors suggest that homosexuality is programmed at birth.
Grayson really wants her sister's necklace. Her friend suggested that she just take it when her sister is not in her room. Grayson refused, saying she didn't want to get in trouble. Grayson is functioning at what level of moral reasoning?
preconventional
When moral reasoning is based on rules or norms of a group to which an individual belongs, it is called ________ morality.
conventional
Where would Kohlberg place civil disobedience in his theory of moral reasoning?
postconventional
Your text suggests that the correlation between Kohlberg's stages and chronological age is because of ________.
cognitive development
According to Nancy Eisenberg, the cause and consequence of moral development is ________.
empathy
________ is antisocial behavior that involves breaking the law.
deliquency
When a teenager is in the midst of an identity crisis and has not yet committed to a resolution, Marcia calls it moratorium.
True
Western cultures appear to have a masculine bias.
True
Devon is happy because he made the swim team. He said it is because all his hard work paid off. Devon has an external locus of control.
False
Teens underlying emotional attachment to their parents remains strong in spite of their focus on their peer relationships.
True
Adolescent friendships are generally less stable than those of younger children.
False
If one identical twin is homosexual, there is at least a 75% chance that the other twin is also homosexual.
False
Prosocial behavior and high levels of moral reasoning are positively correlated.
False
Delinquents appear to lack role-taking skills.
True
Wanda is only 35 years old but she looks closer to 50. She smokes 2 packs of cigarettes per day and drinks heavily on the weekend. She has a chronic cough and seems to catch every little "bug" that comes along. She works outside and refuses sunscreen, consequently the tan everyone admired when she was ten years younger has left her looking twenty years older! Wanda's problems are attributable to ________.
secondary aging
With regard to brain development in early adulthood, which of the following statements is true?
Neurologists suspect that cognitive changes in early adulthood are the result of changes in the brain.
________ is a measure of the ability of the human body to take in and transport oxygen to its organs.
Maximum oxygen uptake
According to physicians, infertility is defined as:
failure to conceive after 12 consecutive months of unprotected intercourse.
________ of the adult population in the United States are infected with genital herpes.
20%
According to your text, the key to preventing STDs is ________.
behavioral change
Sharon contracted chlamydia but did not have symptoms, so her illness went untreated for a long time. She eventually developed another illness, because of the untreated Chlamydia, that left her infertile. Sharon most likely contracted ________.
pelvic inflammatory disease
Marek wants to go to law school. He believes that he has as good of a chance as anyone if he is willing to work hard. He knows he is smart and has enough self-discipline for it, so he is applying to several schools and waiting to hear. Bandura would suggest that Marek has high ________.
self-efficacy
All of the following are associated with women who have been abused, EXCEPT:
high self efficacy
What does your text suggest as the reason date rape may be more traumatizing than stranger assaults?
Victims believe they should have been able to prevent the assault.
Your text suggests that the different rates of mental illness between young and middle-aged adults is best explained by:
One period has dramatically higher expectations and levels of role conflict than the other.
A(n) ________ is an irrational fear of an object, a person, a place, or a situation.
phobia
Larry is convinced that his problems are more important than anyone else's. He gets irrationally angry if he has to wait in a line, and he seems to constantly need to be the center of attention. His personality issues have caused him numerous problems in relationships and at work. Which personality disorder seems to fit Larry best?
narcissistic
________ is a form of thought that recognizes and accepts paradox and uncertainty.
Dialectic thought
________ is an aspect of intelligence that relies on fundamental biological processes rather than individual experience.
Fluid intelligence
Regardless of habits and environment, people have only a certain lifespan because of various natural physical changes associated with age. These universally shared factors are part of primary aging.
True
High risk pregnancies occur more among women in their twenties than among those in their thirties.
False
Two of the most important organs in the immune system are the thymus gland and the bone marrow.
True
Syphilis can cause mental disorders if left untreated.
True
Alcohol and other drug problems are more likely to occur in both victims and abusers than among non-abusive partners.
True
Women are more likely to become addicted to drugs than men are.
False
Fluid intelligence depends highly on life experience.
False
Colleges are now required to provide disabled students with the same kinds of modifications provided by special education programs within the public schools.
True
According to Levinson's theory, everyone has an underlying pattern or design to their life at any given time. This pattern, which includes roles, relationships, and behavior patterns, is called a(n) ________
Life Structure
Cheryl is having an affair with her divorce attorney. She is hoping that he'll leave his wife and marry her eventually. Your text calls what Cheryl is doing ________.
mate-switching
Longitudinal studies suggest that _______ of marriages end in divorce.
20%
Dennis and Debbie get along well because they respect each other, even when they disagree. They are both good listeners and say that they will remain married as long as they live. According to your text, Dennis and Debbie are a ________ couple.
Validating
Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of divorce?
Recently separated adults are less likely to have low self-esteem.
Which of the following represents a true difference between homosexual and heterosexual couples?
Homosexual couples are more egalitarian than heterosexual couples.
Your text suggests that homosexual couples lacking in family support build social networks that consist of a stable partner and a close circle of friends. This network is called ________.
a Family choice
Up to ________ of new mothers experience post- partum depression
25%
Coralyn has a large extended family. She is the one who usually organizes family functions and she is the one who remembers everyone's birthdays. Developmentalists would call Coralyn the family's ________.
kin-keeper
All of the following statements about occupational choice are true, EXCEPT:
Young adults whose parents are college educated are more likely to enlist in the military.
The milestones associated with a particular occupation are called ________.
a career ladder
Holland suggests that individuals who are asocial and prefer unstructured, individual activity often are ________.
artists
An individual between the ages of 18 and 25 must decide on a career, looking at interests and abilities and how they might translate into work. This is Super's ________ stage.
trail
What percentage of women work continuously during the young adult years?
less than 35%
What does your text suggest is the reason that women feel more role conflict (parent, worker, spouse) than men?
women do more work than men
According to Levinson, marriage requires a new life structure.
True
One theory of mating suggests that men try to the minimize the number of offspring, while women try to maximize the number of offspring.
False
Couples who argue a lot but still have more positive interactions than negative are called volatile.
True
Remarriage expands the number of child-bearing years for many divorced women.
True
Women whose bodies produce unusually low levels of steroid hormones toward the end of pregnancy are more likely to develop postpartum depression.
False
Marital satisfaction among childless couples fluctuates more over time than among couples with children.
False
Studies show that hispanic young adults value family ties more than other racial or ethnic groups.
True
Some psychologists fear that internet dating has a negative impact on the social skills of young people.
True