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163 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the following is the best definition of maturation?
the gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed pattern of change
Garrett has recently grown about a half an inch taller, and his feet have grown two shoe sizes. Garrett is experiencing changes in:
the physical domain
Belinda has a good memory for details and facts. She is also practicing her problem-solving skills. Belinda making improvements in the ________ domain.
cognitive
Which of the following is closely associated with the "nature" side of the nature versus nurture controversy?
inborn biases
As children get older, they gradually develop more complex cognitive skills. This gradual increase in ability can be thought of as ________.
continuity
Beverly is feeling a little anxious, now that her best friend, Sylvia is getting married. This leaves Beverly the only single person among her close friends. The pressure to marry and have children is associated with ________.
the social clock
Baby-boomers are BEST thought of as an example of a(n) ________.
cohort
An in-depth examination of a single individual is called ________.
a case study
Jerrod plans to test his hypothesis that grades and study time are related. He is going to have some students study a lot and others not at all. He has a third group of students who will just continue studying as they usually do. Although he is looking for a correlation, Jerrod's plans call for ________.
an experiment
If you wish to study the relationship between weight loss and exercise, exercise is ________.
An independent variable
If you wish to study the relationship between education and financial success, financial success is ________.
a dependent variable
Sarah is a sociologist who intends to spend several months studying the Sunni Muslim culture in Iraq. She hopes to eventually have a fairly detailed picture of their culture. Sarah's study would BEST be considered ________.
ethnography
Micah has been asked to participate in a sleep study. He has been told what to expect, and what the possible risks are that are associated with this type of project. Researchers are giving Micah this information because of the ethical principle known as ________.
informed consent
________ is development that deviates from the typical developmental pathway in a direction that is harmful to the individual.
atypical development
Darius is going to the park to study the interactions of the children and how they plan and get along together. He plans to just watch them, without interfering in their activities. This is an example of ________.
naturalistic observation
The idea that adults can mold children into anything is consistent with the blank slate view.
True
The most widely-used source for advice on child-rearing today comes from books like the one by Benjamin Spock.
False
The nature versus nurture question looks which elements of human development are present due to genetics and which are the result of the environment.
True
Growing taller is considered a qualitative change
False
Learning to walk is a group-specific change.
False
Della thinks that all old people are senile and slow. Della's attitude is an example of ageism.
True
A longitudinal study involves following the same group of participants over a long period of time.
True
Participants in a study that involves deception have the right to be informed about the deception as part of informed consent.
False
The part of the personality that includes a person's basic sexual drives and aggression impulses is called the ________.
id
Freud believed that we have an instinctive drive to seek physical pleasure that motivates most all human behavior. This drive is what Freud called the ________.
libido
Kara ordered a huge hot fudge sundae for dessert. She said that it was no big deal because she had eaten a low calorie lunch. Kara's justification is called ________.
rationalization
According to Erikson, a child's first life crisis is ________.
trust versus mistrust
One key difference between the theories of Freud and Erikson is:
their differing views on when developmental changes cease.
________ is the theoretical view of human development that focuses on changes in behavior that are environmentally driven.
Behaviorism
Pavlov discovered that dogs can be taught to respond to various noises in the same manner they respond to the sight of food. This was the foundation of ________.
classical conditioning
________ is the learning approach proposed by B.F. Skinner that involves behavior and its consequences, such as rewards and punishments.
Operant conditioning
Janie made straight As on her report card. Her parents told her that she does not have to do any household chores until her next report card comes out. This is an example of ________.
negative reinforcement
When Lauren broke her brother's pencil on purpose, her mother swatted her on her bottom. This is an example of ________.
punishment
________ is the reinforcement of intermediate steps until an individual learns a complex behavior.
Shaping
________ is learning that results from watching someone else be rewarded or punished for a particular behavior.
Observational learning
The first stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development is called ________.
sensorimotor
________ theory attempts to explain how the mind manages information, such as the functions of memory.
Information processing
When the methods and concepts of the biological sciences are used to study society it is called ________.
sociobiology
Freud suggested that the conscience develops as part of the superego.
True
Even though Juan accused Mario of cheating on the test, he was actually cheating, himself. Juan was projecting.
True
Erikson felt that Freud spent too much time focusing on social issues and not enough on sexuality.
False
Behaviorism, as a theory, was developed by Ivan Pavlov.
False
Classical conditioning involves behavior and it's consequences, such as punishment.
False
Equilibration is the process of finding a balance between the processes of assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fit the environment.
True
The way we organize information for storage in the memory is though encoding.
True
Nativism is the belief that certain aspects of human nature depend upon environmental and cultural influences within geographic areas.
False
James and Julie are twins. Not only is one male and the other female, but they look nothing alike. James and Julie are ________.
dizygotic twins
An individual's particular set of observed characteristics is referred to as the ________.
phenotype
All people with curly hair do not have equally curly hair. This is because genes differ in ________.
expressivity
Geneticists believe that people get three genes from each parent for skin color. The result is that skin tones blend rather than one parent's genes being truly dominant over the other's. This is an example of ________.
polygenic inheritance
________ growth proceeds from the head downward.
Cephalocaudal
The fluid-filled sac in which a fetus floats until just before birth is called the ________.
amnion
When a fetus reaches a point where it can survive outside the womb, it is said to have achieved ________.
viability
Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes are called ________.
autosomes
Sylvia and Aaron have just had their first child. Because they are both Jewish, before they decided to have a child they went to see a genetic counselor. What were they most likely to be concerned about?
Tay-Sachs disease
Red-green color blindness is a fairly common ________.
sex-linked recessive disorder
Drugs, lead and solvents are examples of ________.
teratogens
________ is a substance sometimes found in a woman's blood that is associated with a number of abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord.
Alpha-fetoprotein
In stage one of labor, there are two important process that must occur, ________ & ________.
dilation; effacement
________ is a birth complication in which the fetus experiences oxygen deprivation during labor and/or delivery.
anoxia
A low birth weight baby is defined as one whose newborn weight is below ________.
5.5 lbs.
The sex of an individual child is determined by the mother.
False
AB blood type is an example of co-dominance.
True
Morning sickness is primarily a feature of the second trimester of pregnancy.
False
Growth that proceeds from the middle of the body outward is called proximodistal.
True
Joyce is in the ninth month of her pregnancy. Her baby has moved into the birth position, where the head is in the lower neck of the uterus, a position known as engagement.
True
African American babies are more likely than Caucasian babies to suffer from sickle-cell anemia.
True
Down's syndrome is a trisomy.
True
Beverly's cervix is 100% effaced, meaning that the cervix has now opened enough for the baby to pass through.
False
The process by which synapse develop is called ________.
synaptogenesis
Sucking is an example of a(n) ________.
adaptive reflex
Candy is 2 months old. By mid-afternoon, Candy gets increasingly fussy, crying for hours for no apparent reason. Chances are, Candy has ________.
colic
Babies typically begin to walk ________.
around 10-12 months
When an apparently healthy infant dies suddenly and unexpectedly, health professionals refer to it as a case of ________.
SIDS
Your text suggests that the biggest reason babies of most ethnic minorities have a higher mortality rate is because of ________.
poverty
Infants have difficulty seeing details of anything that is not right in their face. This is because infants have poor ________.
visual acuity
Dr. Rowe is a developmental psychologist who insists that perceptual abilities are inborn. Dr. Rowe is a(n) ________.
nativist
Dr. Gildon is a developmental psychologist who insists that perceptual abilities are learned. Dr. Gildon is a(n) ________.
empiricist
A decline in attention that occurs when a stimulus has become familiar is called ________.
habituation
Mikka was playing with some green and yellow blocks. After a while, she became bored with them. Her mother showed her some green and orange blocks and she became interested again, even though the only difference was a slight change in one of the colors of the blocks. This demonstrates the concept known as ________.
dishabituation
During the first two months of life, babies' visual attention is primarily directed at ________.
the location of objects
How soon do infants recognize their mothers' faces?
within a few hours of birth
Among types of faces, which to babies seem to prefer?
attractive faces
n order for a child to speak, he has to understand which mouth and facial movements cause which sounds to occur. This is an example of ________.
intersensory integration
The ________ is the part of the brain that is charged with keeping your attention focused on what you are doing.
reticular formation
The brain changes in response to various experiences, an ability known as myelinization.
False
If an infant hears a loud noise, it responds by throwing its arms outward and arching its back. These reactions are part of the Moro reflex.
True
Breast-feeding is superior to bottle feeding for most infants.
True
Marasmus is a condition of macronutrient malnutrition.
True
Elsie is a one year old baby girl, living with her parents in Minnesota. If she is an average infant, she had about four respiratory illnesses already.
False
Lindie likes to watch her mother as she walks around the room. The visual process Lindie must use to do this is called acuity.
False
In utero learning is responsible for infants recognizing and preferring their mothers' voices.
True
Piaget's stage of cognitive development, in which infants use information from their senses and motor actions in order to learn about the world, is called the ________.
sensorimotor stage
Devon is very purposeful in his actions as he explores his world. A lot of his "play" is actually trial and error exploration. Which of the six sub-stages of Piaget's first stage of cognitive development is Devon probably in?
tertiary circular reactions
Seth loves to play hide-and-seek with his mother. He used to cry when his mother hid, but now he understand that she didn't really vanish; she's just not in his view. Seth has developed an understanding of:
object permanence.
Sudie likes it when her mother makes clicking noises with her mouth. She has figured out how to make these noises herself, which she does, whenever her mother does it first. Often, she does it when her mother has already left the room. This is called:
deferred imitation.
Permanent changes in behavior that result from experience is called ________.
learning
________ is the organization of experiences into expectancies called schemas, which allows the individual to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar stimuli.
Schematic learning
According to your text, compared to dogs and cats, animals would be considered ________.
superordinate
Which of the following statements is true regarding infants' memories?
Infants can remember sounds that they hear when asleep.
B.F. Skinner believed that language development begins with ________.
babbling
Chomsky insisted that humans talk because they possess a(n) ________.
LAD
Susan talks to her children like they are little adults. She says that she is annoyed by parents who speak to their children in high-pitched, "sing-song" voices. Susan dislikes ________.
motherese
Infant-directed speech is another name for ________.
motherese
________ believe that language development is a sub-process of general cognitive development.
Constructivist
Comprehension of language is called ________.
receptive language
Michael and Carol are teaching their son to talk by pointing to objects and people and saying the names for them. They want their son to repeat what they say. This style of word learning is called ________.
referential
Some researchers suggest that deferred imitation can happen as young as six weeks of age
True
An infant's understanding of the nature of objects and how they behave is called object permanence.
False
It is children and not mothers who initiate the majority of verbal exchanges.
True
Children seem to show preference for recast sentences.
True
Making repetitive vowel sounds, particularly the uuuu or oooo is called babbling.
False
Deaf children who are learning sign language appear to begin with sign-babbling.
True
Derrick says "bah-bah" whenever he wants a bottle. But he says the same thing when he wants his favorite stuffed bear...and when calling his dog, Barney. Derrick has not yet begun to use holophrases.
False
The most widely used test to measure infant "intelligence" is called the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
True
________ suggests that the ability and need to form an attachment relationship early in life is a genetic characteristic of all human beings.
Attachment theory
Maia feels a great deal of affection for her daughter. Developmentalists call this feeling ________.
an attachment bond
Which of the following is true regarding the bonds between parents and children?
Fathers have the same repertoire of attachment behaviors as mothers do.
Tammy and her mother went to the circus. A clown wearing stilts approached them. Tammy had never seen such a thing. When her mother began to laugh at the clown, Tammy looked warily at her mother then began her own uneasy laughter. This is an example of ________.
social referencing
Thadeus plays next to his mother on the floor with no problem when they are waiting to see the doctor. If a stranger enters the waiting room, Thad seems a little unsure, at first. Then he returns to his toys without showing any particular anxiety. He has even been known to approach a total stranger and offer a toy. Developmentalists would consider Thad to be ________.
Securely attached
All of the following are factors that affect attachment, EXCEPT:
number of siblings in the family
In cross-cultural studies, ________ was shown to produce the smallest number of avoidant attachments.
Japan
Grayson seems to be a happy baby. She doesn't seem to mind trying new foods and she has a fairly regular sleeping and eating pattern. According to your text, Grayson would be considered a(n) ________ child.
easy
________ is a pattern of responding to people and objects in the environment.
personality
Betsy is a shy, quite child. She likes to play alone in her swing or in her bed. Because of her shyness, she tends to gravitate toward solitary activities. Some developmentalists would suggest that Betsy's preference is actually ________.
niche-picking
Another name for the subjective self is ________.
the existential self
With regard to gender differences in temperament, which statement is true?
People tend to perceive larger differences than actually exist.
Understanding that one is defined by various categories such as gender or qualities such as attractiveness is the essence of the ________.
objective self
About what percentage of children are actually placed in a day care environment?
40%
Which statement is true regarding attachment and child care?
Children placed in day care at an early age are more likely to be insecurely attached
The emotional tie to a parent that an infant experiences is called attachment.
True
Fathers are less likely to foster secure attachment because they tend to rough-house with their children.
False
Stranger anxiety is rare before about 5-6 months of age.
True
Emotional availability is rare for mothers of securely attached infants.
False
Maternal depression does not guarantee an insecure attachment.
True
The inborn predispositions that form the basis for personality are called demeanor.
False
Dopamine and serotonin are neurotransmitters that are associated with temperament, by way of their functions in regulating the brain's responses to various stimuli.
True
The emotional self begins to develop as early as 2-3 weeks of age.
False
Which of the following statements about motor development is true?
A child can run easily and climb unaided onto furniture by about age two or three.
What percentage of the population is rigtht-handed?
83%
Which of the following is the LEGAL definition of child abuse?
Physical or psychological injury that results from an adult's intentional exposure of a child to potentially harmful stimuli, sexual acts, or neglect.
________ marks the beginning of Piaget's preoperational stage.
Semiotic function
Gregory gave his mother a dead frog for her birthday. He assumed that she would be as impressed with this prize possession as he was. This is because Gregory's thinking is ________.
egocentric

semiotic
When children begin to play by building things it is called ________ play.
constructive
Jordan asked his mother for two cookies. She took the one she had for him and broke it in half, giving him both pieces. "There," she said. Jordan seemed satisfied with this because of his lack of understanding of ________.
conservation
Social skills and reciprocal friendships can be predicted by a child's development of ________.
a theory of mind
Even though Tyrone is only 8, he has figured out how he learns best. He knows that if he writes his spelling words ten times, he is more likely to remember them for the test at school. Tyrone is demonstrating ________.
metamemory
Vygotsky proposed that infants' mental processes are similar to lower animals. This first stage is called ________.
primitive
The ability to categorically link new words to things in the real world is called ________.
Fast-mapping
Robbie isn't even in kindergarten yet, but he tries to write stories by sounding out words and using what little bits of phonological awareness that he has to try to spell words. He makes a lot of mistakes, but his writing is surprisingly readable. Robbie's strategy to spelling words is called ________.
invented spelling
Gillian is four. Her parents talk to her like she is older and they often expect her to try new tasks on her own before they assist her in succeeding. According to Vygotsky's theory, the tactic Gillian's parents are using has to do with presenting tasks to Gillian that are ________.
within her zone of proximal development
________ refers to the upper and lower boundaries for a particular trait that are established by genetics.
Reaction range
Handedness is most likely genetically determined.
True
Less than half of child abuse cases actually involve physical abuse.
False
Just because children are egocentric does not mean that they have no ability to understand that other people see or experience the world differently.
True
Language skills are related to the development of the theory of mind.
True
Metacognition is knowledge about one's own memory and its functions.
False
"He goed outside" is an example of overregularization.
True
The correlation between a child's I.Q. test scores and current or future grades in school is strong, but not a perfect correlation.
True
Average I.Q. has declined over the past several decades, due to the Flynn effect.
False
List and describe the three domains of development that are used to classify changes across the lifespan.
The physical domain includes changes in size, shape and characteristics of the body. The cognitive domain includes changes in thinking, memory and problem solving. The social domain deals with changes in how individuals relate to one another
What is the nature versus nurture controversy?
This refers to which aspects of human development are as they are because of genetic programming and which aspects develop as a result of environmental factors.
What is the cohort effect? Give an example.
The cohort effect is when a particular developmental issue or difference can be traced to differences among people born in a particular era. For example, men who grew up during the Great Depression tended to be more concerned about their sons' physical health, and less inclined to allow them to play contact sports, because during the Depression, physical work -- manual labor was what most men did for financial survival. Thus, these men believed that if their sons are ever physically hurt, they would never be able to support themselves or a family.