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26 Cards in this Set

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Classical school
Becarria and Bentham believed pple acted rationally(weigh adv and disad), act on free will, pursue pleasure, avoid pain. Law proportional to crime. Becarria=founder of modern criminology.
Describe the rate of homicide from 60s-90s, and what caused it.
Rise from 60s and peaked at 80s. Decline until 85 then peaked until 90s. Post 85 peak bc of young black males who felt despair over econ opports. incr drug traffiking, incr use of guns.
Critique of Classical
Too simplistic, dont always weigh, sometimes act impulsively, cant agree on what is pleasure
Critque of phrenology
Brain not setup compartmentally and too deterministic
Rational Choice aka neoclassical
Weighing costs and benefits
Psychoanalytical
Freud
Id instinctual desires
Ego rational part
Superego societys norms and moral code
General and Specific Deterrence
Members dont break the law bc fear legal punishment. In Specific, offenders already punished choose not to commit another crime bc dont want to get punished again.
Critique Xyy
Rare, sm samples, bias
Positivism
using Scientific Method and collecting data in order to explain social phenomena. Darwin.
Critique of Biological Explanations in general
Crime=too diverse, cant expln why some pple w/ agression turn to football and others to crime, group rate differences aka differences in diff places, cant change bio therefore cant reduce crime
Phrenology
Franz Gall
Lower region in brain assoc'd w/ crim behav =larger in crims
Jukes and Kallikaks
Richard Dugdale noted that 6 Jukes behind bars, but no one to compare fam to.
Goddard studied Kallikak and found one set of desc involved in crime and other not. More likely due to env
Critique of Positivism
Denies free will
Too deterministic
Crims=abnormal and inferior. BUT positivism remains the "dominant apprch in crim today"
Critique psychoanalytical
Neglects social factors, context
Deterrence
Potential and actual punishment (costs) outweigh the crime (like rational).
Biological Inferiority
Earnest Hooton
Measured male prisoners
found low foreheads, crooked noses
Called them biologically inferior
Muderers-tall and thin
Rapists- short and heavy
Advocated sterlization and exile
Objective vs Subjective
Obj-impact of legal punishment
Subj-impact of people's perceptions of the likelihood and severity of legal punishment.
Jean Piaget
Four stages of of mental and moral development (27)
Critique of Atavism
Small sample
Traits of Sicilians=Racist
Theory discredited (by Goring)
Moral Development
Kohlberg:individs pass thru sev stages to develop their ability to reason morally. But not everyone makes it thru all stages
Atavism
Caesar Lombroso=founder of positivist school
Crims=throwbacks, primitive app'ce (hairy, large jaws)
XYY Chromosome
Study found men more likely to be tall, long arms, severe acne, low intell, more likely to be arrested for petty thefts
Diet and Nutrition
Dan White killed two men, used Twinkie def (sugar caused to be more depressed)got off on manslaughter.
Critique of Body Shapes
Same flaws as Lombroso and Hooton
Bias against athletic pple who could be arrested based on appce.
Critique of Biological Inferiority
Control group didnt rep country well. Sterlization or exile=Nazi like.
Body Shapes
William Sheldon
Endomorphs-relaxed and extrov
Ectomorph-thin and shy
Mesomorph-agrssive, commits crime