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56 Cards in this Set

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list reasons people become police officers
variety, repsonsibility, serve the public, adventure, security, pay, advancement, retirement, prestige
What requirements are made of posibe police officers?
physical fitness tests, check for criminal record, and psychological evaluations in order to tell how they will make important dicscretionary decisions that may determine life or death in a stressful situatioon
What factors go into why a person will pick a particular place or job in law enforcement?
Compensation packages, community where opperating,
What factor does education play in recruitment?
smaller agencies require highschool degrees- 2 to 4 yr degrees for federal and state and well paying suberb and city jobs
What are the pros of having a well educated police force?
Less disciplinary problems and complaints from citizens and improves writing of reports and other perfomance aspects
Disciplied Cops write perfectly
does college education increase performance of officers?
It's debatble - education does not determine performance
what other factors besides education dertermine quality of performsance?
Departmental training,supervision and other things
Why are women and minorities making up an increasing proportion of police forces
1968 National advisory commission on civil disorders found that police minority relations greatly contributed to ghtto riots in the 60s-Equal Employment Opportunity act of 1972 bars state and local gov's from discriminitory hiring practices-state and federa; agencies and law suits have pressured most city police foerces to mount campaigns to hire more females and minorities
What percentage of officers are minoriy nationwide
22 %
What percentage of officers are minoriy in large cities
38 %
When did most police departments not hire minorities?
before the 1970s
What reason does the book give for increased numbers of minorities being put on the police force?
As the populations and the political power in many American cities shifts to minorities the make up of their police forces reflect that change
What changed the attitude of policing being men's work?
federal and state laws against hiring practice dscrimination as well as court cases
What were police hiring practices like before the 1970s?
They did not hire many minorities
What is the dependent variable in the Albonetti paper?
bail severity
What is the main question asked in the paper?
do race and stratification resources make a difference in pretreial release?
What is the method of study for the paper?
It is a statistical analysis that uses Structural Equation Modeling which can estimate more than one independent variable
What were the extralegal independent variables in the paper?
Education, income, dangerousness, type of offense, prior record,race
What were the legal independent variables in the paper?
length of residence, maritawl status, employment status, jumped bail
What are the larger categories that all of the independent variables were put into before they effected the dependent variable?
Stratification resources, community ties, and statuatory severity
What was the main condition for setting bail put forth in the Bail Reform act of 1966 and what was the intent of the act?
Risk of flight-
preventative detention is only relevant to capital cases-the act tried to mmitigate the excessive use of cash bail in U.S. courts and level the playing field between the rick and the poor
How did the the Bail Reform Act of 1966 view consideratiopn of financial resources?`
It could take them into account only in relation to community ties
What does statuatory severity mean?
seriousness of offense
What did they do to the types of crimes in the study?
The types of offenses were dichotomized-seperated between white collar and conventional crimes in order to see if stratification was relevent
From what years were the data taken for the study?
What were Gold camp's findings about defendents detained in jail during the pretrial stages of felony prosecution?
They recieved more severe sentences
What are the beliefs of Beeley, Morse, Beattie and Foote?
the legal function of bailis to assure the return of the accused (flight risk) for subsequent hearings and preventive detention flies in the face of innocent until proven guilty and is therefoire unconstitutional
What did Beeley point out in 1927?
Risk of appearence in court was unrelated to pretrial release and release was largely determined by stature and should be based on risk
What did Foote point out?
Cash bail was the most frequent condition of release and so the poor were disproprtionately detained and the rich were getting out
What are the beliefs of Mitchel and Hess?
the purpose of bail is to get the defendent to appear and to protect the public from dangerous defendents
What was the finding of the lower court of appeals before U.S. v. Salerno?
preventive detention for reasons of dangerousness is unconstitutional as a violation of of the 5th ammendment's substantive due process guarantee
What was U.S. v. Salerno?
Preventive detention as laid out in the B.R.A. of 1984 is not meant as punishment -it is preventive detention to keep the public safe
What is the B.R.A. of 1984
The reason for bail is preventive detention and to reduce risk of flight
What are the steps taken when B.R.A. of 1984 is invoked?
A prosecutor recommends that the defendent be kept in jail-A federal judge hoolds a hearing to determine whether 1.there is rik of flight 2.the person is likely to obstruct justice, threaten or injur a prospective witness or juror or 3.the offense is one of violence or one punishable by life in prison or death penalty. If one or more then the judge can order prev. det.
What were the out comes of discussions of Beeley and Foote tt. al. ?
People tried to find empirical evidence of defendent attributes such as community ties, that indicated flight risk. These studies were inconclusive but nonetheless community ties found its way into the B.R.A. of 1966
What are the contributions of Farnworth and Horan?
They did a huge study of over 12,000 court case in North Carolina that found that regardless of race people of lower occupational levels recieve higher bonds-they also found that white people that were older and were charged with more serious offenses recievede higher bonds. They left out the varibles that had been argued for years of posible danger to the community and risk of flight
What is the Legal Realist tradition of sociological research?
They seek to draw a distinction between the law in action and the law on the books
What is the guiding hypothesis of the paper?
That race is a modifier of stratification and other legal and extra legal variables not as a main effect itself
What is the sample for the paper and how does it differ from Farnworth and Horan?
The paper uses 10 federal court settings from '74-'77 with 5660 male felony defendents almost equally split racially between blacks and whites. F. and H. used only one single state.
what is the difference between a negative relationship and a positive relationship?
A negative relationship is an inverse relationship and a positive relation ship is a parallel relationship
What was the effect of community ties on bail severity?
A negative relationship as ties increased severity decreased
What was the effect of defendents with records of jumping bail on bail severity?
A positive relationship
What was the effect of defendents with prior felony records on bail severity?
a positive relationship
What was the effect of stratification resources on bail severity?
it is a negative relation ship
What was the effect of a defendent's race alone on bail severity?
race has no significant influence by itself
What was the effect of defendents having been accused of a white collar crime as opposed to a conventional crime have on bail severity?
Being accused of a white collar crime benefits defendents when it comes to bail severity
How does stratification of resources vary in its effects on bail severity across racial lines?
Higher stratification resouurces benefits both but bennefits whites more than blacks
How do community ties vary in their effects on bail severity across racial lines?
They are statistically similar
How does having a record of bail jumping and type of crime vary in its effects on bail severity across racial lines?
They are statistically similar
How does having a prior record of adult felony vary in its effects on bail severity across racial lines?
both groups pay for this but blacks pay more
How does dangerousness of the defendent vary in its effects on bail severity across racial lines?
bail severity is higher for whites than blacks contrary to conflict and labeling theory
How does statuatory seriousness of the offense charged vary in its effects on bail severity across racial lines?
bail severity is higher for whites than blacks contrary to conflict and labeling theory
Why is race important to look at?
Because it conditions or moderates effects
What can be said about labeling and conflict theory in relation to the paper?
Their assumptions would not always be correct in this environment-in some areas black's bennefits are greater than whites
Why would blacks in the proffessional managerial class percieve criminal injustice according to the paper
Blacks don't get the same bennefits from stratification resources that whites do-as in other stratification systems whites get a better return on their resources.
Blake v. Los Angeles 1979
Griggs v. Duke Power Company 1971
Court decisions that opened up police work for women by prohibiting job assignment by gender, changing minimum physical requirements, and insisting that departments make job classification and promotion criteria non discriminatory