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41 Cards in this Set

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Community Corrections
The use of variety of offically ordered program-based sanctions that permit convicted offenders to remain in the community under conditional supervision as an alternative to active prison sentences.
Probation
A sentence of imprisonment that is suspended. Also, the conditional freedom granted by a judicial officer to a convicted offender, as long as the person meets certain conditions of behavior.
Probation Revocation
A court order taking away a convicted offender's probationary status and usally withdrawing the conditional freedom associated with that status in response to a violation of the conditions of probation.
Parole
The status of convicted offender who has been conditionally released form prison by a paroling authority prior to the epiration of his or her sentence, is placed under the supervision of a parole agency, and is required to observe the conditions of parole.
Parole board
A state paroling authority. Most states have this that decide when an incarcerated offender is ready for conditional release. Some boards also function as revocation hearing panels.
Parole (probation violation)
An act or a failure to act by a parolee (or probationer) that does not conform to the conditions of his or her parole (or probation).
Conditions of parole (probation)
The general and special limites imposed on an offender who is released on parole (or probation). General conditions tend to be fixed by state statute, while special conditions are madated by the sentencing authority (court or board), and take into consideration the background of the offender and the circumstances surrounding the offense.
Parole Revocation
The administrative action of a paroling authority removing a person from parole status in response to a violation of lawfully required conditions of parole, including the prohibition against commission of a new offense, and usually resulting in a return to prison.
Restitution
A court requirement that an alleged or convicted offender pay money or provide services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community.
Revocation hearing
A hearing held before a legally constituted hearing body (such as a parole board) to determine whether a parolee or probationer has violated the conditions and requirements of his or her parole or probation.
Caseload
The number of probation or parole clients assigned to one probation or parole officer for supervision.
Intermediate sanctions
The use of split sentecing, shock probation or parole, home confinement, shock incarcerations, or community service in lieu of other, more traditional, sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines.
Split sentence
A sentence explicitly requiring the convicted offender to serve a period of confinement in a local, state, or federal facility, followed by a period by probation.
Shock probation
The practice of sentencing offenders to prison, allowing them to apply for probationary release, and enacting such release in surprise fashion. Offenders who recieve this may not be aware that they will be released on probation and may expect to spend a much longer time behind bars.
Shock Incarcerations
A sentencing option that makes use of 'boot camp' - type prisons to impress on convicted offenders the realitites of prison life.
Mixed Sentence
A sentence tha requires that a convicted offender serve weekends (or other specified periods of time) in a confinement favility (usually a jail) while undergoing porbationary supervision in the community.
Community service
A sentencing alternative that requires offenders to spend at least part of their time working for a community agency.
Intensive Probation Supervision (IPS)
A form of probation supervision involving frequent face-to-face contact between the probationer and the probation officer.
Home Confinement
House arrest. Individuals ordered confined to their homes are sometimes monitored electrionically to ensure they do not leave during the hours of confinement. Absence from the home during working hours is often permitted.
Prison
A stat or federal confinement facility that has cutodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement.
Justice Model
A contempory model of imprisonment based on the principle of just deserts
Prison capacity
The size of the correctional population an instituition can effectively hold. There are three types of prison capacity: rated, operational, and design.
Rated capacity
The number of inmates a prison can handle according to the judgment of experts.
Operational Capacity
The number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate beased on management considerations.
Design capactiy
The number of inmates a prison was intender to hold when it was built or modified.
Recidivism
The repetition of criminal behavior. IN staistical practice, a recidivism rate may be any of a number of possible counts or instances or arrest, conviction, correctional commitment, or correctional status change related to repetitions of these events within a fiven period of time.
ex post facto
Latin for 'after the fact' The sonsitiution prohibits the enactment of ex post facto laws, which make acts committed before the laws in question were passed punishable as crimes.
ADMAX
Administrative maximum. The term is used by the federal government to denote ultra-high-security prisons.
Jail
A confinement facility administered by an agency of local governemnt, typically a law enforcement agency, intended for adults by sometimes also containing juveniles, which holds people detained pending adjudication or ommitted after adjudication, usually those committed on sentences of a year or less.
Direct-supervision jail
A temporary confinement facitlity that eliminates many of the traditional barriers between inmates and correctional staff. Physical barriers in this are far less common that in traditional jails, allwoing staff members the opportunity for greater interations with, and control over, residents.
Regional Jail
A jail that is built and run using the combine resources of a variety of local jurisdictions.
Privatization
The movement toward the wider use of private prisons.
Private prison.
A correctional insitution operated by a private firm on behalf of a local or state government.
Total insitiutions
Enclosed facilities, separated from society both socially and physically, where the in habitants share all aspects of their lives daily.
Prison Subculture.
The values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmates. This has been found to be surprisingly consistent across the country.
Prisonization
The process whereby newly instituitonalized offenders come to accpet prison lifestyes and criminal values. Although many inmates begin their prison experience with only a few values that support criminal behavior, the social ization experience they undergo while incarcerated leads to a much wider accpetance of such values.
Prison argot
The slang characteristic of prison subcultures and prison life.
Hands off doctrine
A policy of nonintervention with regard to prison management that U.S. courts tended to follow until the late 1960s. For the past 30 years, th doctrine has languished as judicial intervention in prison administarton dramitically increased, although there is now some evidence of a return to a new hands-off era.
Civil death
The leagal status of prisoners in come jurisdictions who are denied the opportunity to vote, hold public office, marry, or enter into conracts by virtue of thier status as incarcerated felons. While it is primarily of historaical interest, some jurisdictions still limit the contractual opporunities available to inmates.
Balancing test
A principle, developed by the courts and applied to the corrections arena by Pell v. Procunier (1974), which attempts to weigh the rights of an individual, as guaranteed by the Constitution, against the authority of states to make laws or to otherise restrict a person's freedom in order to proectthe state's interests and its citizens.
Grievance Procedure
A formalized arrangement, usally involving a newtral hearing board whereby institutionalized individuals have the opportunity to register complaints about the conditons of their confinement.