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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An opposing argument.
capitalist bourgeoisie
The owners of the means of production.
communist manifesto
In this document, Marx focused his attention on the economic conditions perpetuated by the capitalist system. He stated that its development had turned workers into a dehumanized mass who lived an existence that was at the mercy of their capitalist employers.
Research conducted by mainstream liberal/positivist criminologists designed to unmask the weak and powerless members of society so they can be better dealt with by the legal system.
crimes of reduction
Crimes that are committed when the offended party experiences a loss of some quality relative to his or her present standing. Their loss can come about if they are victims of robbery or theft, but they also may be victimized if their dignity is stripped from them when they are taunted by racists.
crimes of repression
Crimes that are committed when members of a group are prevented from achieving their fullest potential because of racism, sexism, or some other status bias.
deconstructionist analysis
An approach that focuses on the use of language by those in power to define crime based on their own values and biases; also called postmodernist.
dialectic method
For every idea, or thesis, there exists an opposing argument, or antithesis. Since neither position can ever be truly accepted, the result is a merger of the two ideas, a synthesis. Marx adapted this analytic method for his study of class struggle.
doing gender
Men's struggle to dominate women to prove their manliness. Crime is a vehicle for men to do gender because it separates them from the weak and allows them to demonstrate physical bravery. Violence directed toward women is an especially economical way to demonstrate manhood.
elite deviance
White-collar and economic crimes.
imperatively coordinated associations
These associations are comprise of two groups: those who possess authority and use it for social domination and those who lack authority and are dominated.
The view that the criminal law and criminal justice system are solely an instrument for controlling the poor, have-not members of society; the state is the tool of the capitalists.
integrative-constitutive theory
This theory attempts to show how crime and its control cannot be separated from the structural and cultural contexts in which it is produced. In our postmodern society, unequal power relations, built on human differences, provide the conditions that define harm and therefore crime.
left realism
A branch of conflict theory that holds that crime is a real social problem experienced by the lower classes and that lower-class concerns about crime must be addressed by radical scholars.
lumpen proletariat
The fringe members at the bottom of society who produce nothing and live, parasitically, off the work of others.
Displacement of workers, pushing them outside the economic and social mainstream.
norm resistance
Interaction between authorities and subjects that eventually produces open conflict between the two groups that can take on a number of different forms.
peacemaking movement
A branch of conflict theory that stresses humanism, mediation, and conflict resolution as a means to end crime.
Approach that focuses on the use of language by those in power to define crime based on their own values and biases; also called deconstructionist.
preemptive deterrence
Efforts to prevent crime through community organization and youth involvement.
productive forces
Technology, energy sources, and material resources.
productive relations
The relationships that exist among the people producing goods and services.
radical theory
The view that crime is a product of the capitalist system; Marxist criminology.
The use of language elements as signs or symbols beyond their literal meaning.
social reality of crime
The view that the main purpose of criminology is to promote a peaceful just society.
structural locations
Areas conducive to crime.
structural Marxist theory
The view that the law and the justice system are designed to maintain the capitalist system and that members of both the owner and worker classes whose behavior threatens the stability of the system will be sanctioned.
surplus value
The Marxist view that the laboring classes produce wealth that far exceeds their wages and goes to the capitalist class as profits.