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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
capable guardians
Effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors
The concentration of police resources on a particular problem area, such as street-level drug dealing, to eradicate or displace criminal activity.
crime discouragers
Discouragers can be grouped into three categories: guardians, who monitor targets (such as store security guards); handlers, who monitor potential offenders (such as parole officers and parents); and managers
crime displacement
An effect of crime prevention efforts in which efforts to control crime in one area shift illegal activities to another.
defensible space
The principle that crime prevention can be achieved through modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity individuals have to commit crime.
deterrence theory
The view that if the probability of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases, crime rates should decline.
diffusion of benefits
An effect that occurs when an effort to control one type of crime has the unexpected benefit of reducing the incidence of another.
An effect that occurs when an effort made to eliminate one type of crime also controls others, because it reduces the value of criminal activity by limiting access to desirable targets.
The excitement or exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations.
The phenomenon in which a crime prevention effort has an immediate impact that then dissipates as criminals adjust to new conditions.
general deterrence
A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties. General deterrence measures, such as long prison sentences for violent crimes, are aimed at convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweigh its benefits.
incapacitation effect
The idea that keeping offenders in confinement will eliminate the risk of their committing further offenses.
informal sanctions
Disapproval, stigma, or anger directed toward an offender by significant others (parents, peers, neighbors, teachers) resulting in shame, embarrassment, and loss of respect.
just desert
The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished. The severity of punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the crime.
The idea that offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs, and fears before deciding to commit crime.
The idea that offenders react selectively to the characteristics of particular crimes.
permeable neighborhood
Areas with a greater than usual number of access streets from traffic arteries into the neighborhood.
rational choice
The view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act.
reasoning criminal
According to the rational choice approach, law-violating behavior occurs when an offender decides to risk breaking the law after considering both personal factors (such as the need for money, revenge, thrills, and entertainment) and situational factors (how well a target is protected and the efficiency of the local police force).
reintegrative shaming
A method of correction that encourages offenders to confront their misdeeds, experience shame because of the harm they caused, and then be reincluded in society.
selective incapacitation
The policy of creating enhanced prison sentences for the relatively small group of dangerous chronic offenders.
situational crime prevention
A method of crime prevention that stresses tactics and strategies to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow settings, such as reducing burglaries in a housing project by increasing lighting and installing security alarms.
specific deterrence
A crime control policy suggesting that punishment be severe enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat their criminal activity.
suitable target
According to routine activities theory, a target for crime that is relatively valuable, easily transportable, and not capably guarded.
three stikes and you're out
Policy whereby people convicted of three felony offenses receive a mandatory life sentence.
The view that people's behavior is motivated by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.