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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
active precipitation
The view that the source of many criminal incidents is the aggressive or provocative behavior of victims.
capable guardians
Effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors
chronic victimization
Those who have been crime victims maintain a significantly higher chance of future victimization than people who have remained nonvictims. Most repeat victimizations occur soon after a previous crime has occurred, suggesting that repeat victims share some personal characteristic that makes them a magnet for predators.
crisis intervention
Emergency counseling for crime victims.
cycle of violence
The idea that victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves.
date rape
Forcible sex during a courting relationship.
exclusionary rule
The principle that prohibits using evidence illegally obtained in a trial. Based on the Fourth Amendment right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, the rule is not a bar to prosecution, as legally obtained evidence may be available that may be used in a trial.
motivated offenders
The potential offenders in a population. According to rational choice theory, crime rates will vary according to the number of motivated offenders.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
An extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors.
passive precipitation
The view that some people become victims because of personal and social characteristics that make them attractive targets for predatory criminals.
posttraumatic stress disorder
Psychological reaction to a highly stressful event; symptoms may include depression, anxiety, flashbacks, and recurring nightmares.
preventive detention
The practice of holding dangerous suspects before trial without bail.
restorative justice
Using humanistic nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony.
stalking
A pattern of behavior directed at a specific person that includes repeated physical or visual proximity, unwanted communications, and/or threats sufficient to cause fear in a reasonable person.
suitable target
According to routine activities theory, a target for crime that is relatively valuable, easily transportable, and not capably guarded.
target hardening
Making one's home or business crime proof through the use of locks, bars, alarms, and other devices.
victim precipitation view
The idea that the victim's behavior was the spark that ignited the subsequent offense, as when the victim abused the offender verbally or physically.
victim-witness assistance programs
Government programs that help crime victims and witnesses; may include compensation, court services, and/or crisis intervention.
victimologist
A person who studies the victim's role in criminal transactions.