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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
aging out
The process by which individuals reduce the frequency of their offending behavior as they age. It is also known as spontaneous remission, because people are believed to spontaneously reduce the rate of their criminal behavior as they mature. Aging out is thought to occur among all groups of offenders.
career criminal
A person who repeatedly violates the law and organizes his or her lifestyle around criminality.
chivalry hypothesis
The idea that low female crime and delinquency rates are a reflection of the leniency with which police treat female offenders.
chronic offender
According to Wolfgang, a delinquent offender who is arrested five or more times before he or she is 18 and who stands a good chance of becoming an adult criminal; such offenders are responsible for more than half of all serious crimes.
cleared crimes
Crimes are cleared in two ways: (1) when at least one person is arrested, charged, and turned over to the court for prosecution; or (2) by exceptional means, when some element beyond police control precludes the physical arrest of an offender (for example, the offender leaves the country).
continuity of crime
The view that crime begins early in life and continues throughout the life course. Thus, the best predictor of future criminality is past criminality.
early onset
A term that refers to the assumption that a criminal career begins early in life and that people who are deviant at a very young age are the ones most likely to persist in crime.
ecological view
A belief that social forces operating in urban areas create criminal interactions; some neighborhoods become natural areas for crime.
expressive crime
A crime that has no purpose except to accomplish the behavior at hand, such as shooting someone.
index crimes
The eight crimes that, because of their seriousness and frequency, the FBI reports the incidence of in the annual Uniform Crime Reports. Index crimes include murder, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, arson, larceny, and motor vehicle theft.
liberal feminist theory
This theory suggested that the traditionally lower crime rate for women could be explained by their second-class economic and social position. As women's social roles changed and their lifestyles became more like those of males, it was believed that their crime rates would converge.
masculinity hypothesis
The view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men.
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
The ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the U.S. Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violation.
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
A new program that will require local police agencies to provide a brief account of each incident and arrest within 22 crime patterns, including incident, victim, and offender information.
Part I crimes
Another term for index crimes; eight categories of serious, frequent crimes.
Part II crimes
All crimes other than index and minor traffic offenses. The FBI records annual arrest information for Part II offenses.
The idea that those who started their delinquent careers early and who committed serious violent crimes throughout adolescence were the most likely to persist as adults.
self-report survey
A research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.
three stikes and you're out
Policy whereby people convicted of three felony offenses receive a mandatory life sentence.
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)
Large database, compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, of crimes reported and arrests made each year throughout the United States.