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63 Cards in this Set

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acquaintance rape
Forcible sex in which offender and victim are acquainted with one another.
acquaintance robbery
Robbers who focus their thefts on people they know.
aggravated rape
Rape involving multiple offenders, weapons, and victim injuries.
An attack that may not involve physical contact; includes attempted battery or intentionally frightening the victim by word or deed.
A physical attack that includes hitting, punching, slapping, or other offensive touching of a victim.
bias crimes
Violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic; also called hate crimes.
child abuse
Any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation, such as an accident, can be found. Child abuse can also be a function of neglecting to give proper care and attention to a young child.
In prosecuting rape cases, it is essential to prove that the attack was forced and that the victim did not give voluntary consent to her attacker. In a sense, the burden of proof is on the victim to show that her character is beyond question and that she in no way encouraged, enticed, or misled the accused rapist. Proving victim dissent is not a requirement in any other violent crime.
convictional criminals
Those who violate the law because they believe their actions will ultimately benefit society.
crusted over
Children who have been victims of or witnesses to violence and do not let people inside, nor do they express their feelings. They exploit others and in turn are exploited by those older and stronger; as a result, they develop a sense of hopelessness.
date rape
Forcible sex during a courting relationship.
death squads
Government troops used to destroy political opposition parties.
Planning a homicide after careful thought, however brief, rather than acting on sudden impulse.
economic compulsive behavior
Behavior that occurs when drug users resort to violence to gain funds to support their habit.
elder abuse
A disturbing form of domestic violence by children and other relatives with whom elderly people live.
The murder of a senior citizen.
electroencephalograph (EEG)
A device that can record the electronic impulses given off by the brain, commonly called brain waves.
The instinct to preserve and create life; eros is expressed sexually.
expressive violence
Violence that is designed not for profit or gain but to vent rage, anger, or frustration.
felony murder
A homicide in the context of another felony, such as robbery or rape; legally defined as first-degree murder.
Endangering or killing an unborn fetus.
first-degree murder
The killing of another person after premeditation and deliberation.
gang rape
Forcible sex involving multiple attackers.
The term means little war and developed out of the Spanish rebellion against French troops after Napoleon's 1808 invasion of the Iberian peninsula. Today the term is used interchangeably with the term terrorist.
hate crimes
Acts of violence or intimidation designed to terrorize or frighten people considered undesirable because of their race, religion, ethnic origin, or sexual orientation.
Men who typically have a callous sexual attitude and believe violence is manly. They perceive danger as exciting and are overly sensitive to insult and ridicule. They are also impulsive, more apt to brag about sexual conquests, and more likely to lose control, especially when using alcohol.
The murder of a very young child.
instrumental crimes
Offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal.
instrumental violence
Violence used in an attempt to improve the financial or social position of the criminal.
international terrorism
Terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country.
involuntary manslaughter
A homicide that occurs as a result of acts that are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others, such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
A homicide without malice.
marital exemption
The practice in some states of prohibiting the prosecution of husbands for the rape of their wives.
marital rape
Forcible sex between people who are legally married to each other.
mass murder
The killing of a large number of people in a single incident by an offender who typically does not seek concealment or escape.
mission hate crime
Violent crimes committed by disturbed individuals who see it as their duty to rid the world of evil.
The unlawful killing of a human being (homicide) with malicious intent.
Not providing a child with the care and shelter to which he or she is entitled.
negligent manslaughter
A homicide that occurs as a result of acts that are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others, such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs; also called involuntary manslaughter.
nonnegligent manslaughter
A homicide committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel; although intent may be present, malice is not; also called voluntary manslaughter.
Consideration of a homicide before it occurs.
psychopharmacological relationship
Violent, aggressive behavior that is the direct consequence of ingesting mood-altering substances.
The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.
reactive hate crime
Perpetrators believe they are taking a defensive stand against outsiders who they believe threaten their community or way of life.
road rage
A term used to describe motorists who assault each other.
Taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force and/or by putting the victim in fear.
second-degree murder
A homicide with malice but not premeditation or deliberation, as when a desire to inflict serious bodily harm and a wanton disregard for life result in the victim's death.
serial murder
The killing of a large number of people over time by an offender who seeks to escape detection.
serial rape
Multiple rapes committed by one person over time.
sexual abuse
Exploitation of a child through rape, incest, or molestation by a parent or other adult.
shield laws
Laws designed to protect rape victims by prohibiting the defense attorney from inquiring about their previous sexual relationships.
Sibling homicide. The median age of sibling homicide offenders is 23 years old, and the median age of their victims is 25 years old. The vast majority of sibling homicide offenders are males (87 percent), and they are most likely to kill their brothers. When lethal violence by brothers against their sisters occurs, it is more likely in juvenile sibling relationships rather than adult sibling relationships (31 percent versus 14 percent). Sisters killing their brothers or sisters are relatively rare events.
statutory rape
Sexual relations between an underage minor female and an adult male; though not coerced, an underage partner is considered incapable of giving informed consent.
subculture of violence
Norms and customs that, in contrast to society's dominant value system, legitimize and expect the use of violence to resolve social conflicts.
The aggrieved party does nothing to rectify a conflict situation; over time, the unresolved conflict may be compounded by other events that cause an eventual eruption.
systemic link
Violent behavior that results from the conflict inherent in the drug trade.
The illegal use of force against innocent people to achieve a political objective.
terrorist group
Any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism.
According to Freud, the instinctual drive toward aggression and violence.
thrill-seeking hate crime
Hate-mongers who join forces to have fun by bashing minorities or destroying property; inflicting pain on others gives them a sadistic thrill.
virility mystique
The belief that males must separate their sexual feelings from needs for love, respect, and affection.
voluntary manslaughter
A homicide committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel; although intent may be present, malice is not.
workplace violence
Irate employees or former employees attack coworkers or sabotage machinery and production lines; now considered the third leading cause of occupational injury or death.