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194 Cards in this Set

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means the power of force of the community to enforce the law.
Posse comitatus,
In 1285 Statue of Winchester was passed requiring all towns to have men on the streets after dark to provide safety of travelers and towns inhabitants. Served without pay, they were supervised by a constable also a private citizen who served a voluntary one year term.
In 1285 Statue of Winchester
required citizens come to the aid of the night watchmen whenever they gave the hue and cry for assistance, required all men between 15-60 to keep arms for rendering aid and subduing offensers.
Statue of Winchester
parliament established rewards system for the conviction of offenders who committed crimes. Downside was that theifs would encourage people to commit crimes to collect reward money.
In 1689
was named magistrate for bow street court.
In 1748 Henry Fielding
is considered to be the father of the modern police detective.
John Fielding
presented a reform bill for policing but excluded London as parliament thought this would lead to loss of individual liberties.
1829 Robert Peel
Peel is known today as the father of policing,
Robert Peel
New York established a police force modeled after London Metropolitan police
1845
was chief of police in Berkeley California and was a major advocate for police reform.
August Vollmer
Things August Vollmer changed with his reform
• Policing should be a profession that serves the vommunity on a non-partisan basis
• Politics should be eliminated from policen
• LEA should be headed by qualified chief executives.
• LEA should raise the hiring and training standards for new recruits.
• LEA should apply modern management principles and advocate centralize command and control fo police operations.
• LEA should create specialized units
Vollmer and other advocates
came up with the civil service system, which ensured the highest quality candidate was hired after he tested.
is considered to be the father of modern policing in America
August Vollme
the use of science to answer legal questions
forensics
the application of scientific techniques in collecting and analyzing physical evidence.
criminalistics
the study of the effects of poisons,________ thought to be the father of forensic toxicology.
toxicology, Mathieu Orfila
_________ developed the first means of human identification known as ________ His system was based on body measurements and photographs as he felt it was impossible for two people to be exactly alike. Is considered to be the father of criminal identification.
Alphonse Bertillon,anthropometry.
provided the first study of fingerprints, he created a classification system capable of filing prints in a logical searchable sequence
Francis Galton
: Authored a book in the field of questioned documents, his book was reason for acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by courts
Albert Osborn
created the exchange principal: which stated when a criminal came in contact with another object of person cross-transfer of evidence occurred, primarily of hairs and fibers.
Edmond Locard:
discovered DNA
Alec Jeffreys
responsible for the enforcing of the Mann act and terrorist investigations
FBI
the connection between a fact offered in evidence and the issue to be proved.
Relevance
Encounters with public fall into three categories
1. Voluntary is least intrusive, person can terminate at any time
2. Second is investigative detention or stop and frisk
• Must have reasonable suspicion criminal act is occurring, about to occur or has occurred, suspect is not free to leave, use force necessary to keep him there
3. Third is Arrest, believe person has engaged in criminal activity, arrest warrant is not necessary.
orders to pick up a suspect, which alert other officers to a crime, usually done by first officer onscene.
Broadcast Alarms:
Investigator should develop their own reference strategy for locating information on suspects which can include.
• Cty and county records,
• State records
• Federal: FBI, SS postal Inspectors etc
• Private, miving companies, telephone company , public utilites.
Basic content of a wanted notice is
a photograph, fingerprints and an extensive personal description, should try to use color photographs when possible.
Four purposes for a modern wanted notice are
• Provide sufficient identifying characteristics, so other LEA to provisionally id the suspect
• To alert to other LEA the nature and character of him and criminal history and if armed and dangerous.
• To suggest activities and areas in which a search or surveillance may locate him
• To delineate the crime in detail, alert arresting officer to potential legally significant evidence available at time of arrest.
is made by the accused person and is oriented toward proving the identity of the person responsible for the crime alleged in the indictment or information
Accusatory Pleading:
Guidelines likely to have legal significance in est the identity of the suspect
• Witness who saw him do crime, or at crime scene around time crime commited
• Witness who observed him in the neighborhood around the time crime commtied
• Physical evidence discovered in the crime scene search, indicates he wsa there or had contact with victim
• Evidence found on the suspect at time of arrest
• Connect ups
1. sus possessing vehicle that witness will testify was used in crime
2. having proceeds of crime
3. having an unexplained injury
4. having weapos used in the crime
5. having bee ninterviewed by an officer at or near crime scene around time crime commited.
Body of crime, essential elements
Corpus delicti:
Three major steps of case preparation for a investigator are
1. Corpus Delicti
2. Negative Evidence, oriented to countering defenses to the crime.
3. Procedural foundations in the securing of evidence,
Criminal investigation function can be terminated in the following instances
• Results have been obtained in full case is cleared by arrest or exceptional means
• Results have been obtained in part, no further results can be obtained
• No results can be obtained.
The successful management of a crime scene consists of three things
• 1st Responding officers whose responsibility it is to render crime scene safe and control movement of all people through crime scene
• 2nd crime scene investigator who conducts the search fro evidence and prepare the proper documentation of crime scene
• 3rd search for witnesses.
A response to a crime would be managed according to these guidelines.
• Approach
• SAFETY:
• Medical attention:
• Search for Witnesses:
• Broadcast Alarm. .
• Scene Boundaries.
• Management Notification:
• Media Relations
when witnesses overhear other people talking about the crime they tend to adopt some part of that story as there own and it alters there recollection of what they saw
Retroactive Interference:
Information that should not be released to the media
1. prior criminal charges and convictions , or comments regarding reputation character, guilt, or innocence
2. Identification of any juvenile suspects
3. Comment on any confession or admission
4. identity of any possible witnesses
5. precise description of amount of money or other items taken
Methods for systematically searching:
• Point-to-point movement: follow a chain of obects that are obviously evidence
• Ever-widening circle: start at focal point and walk outward circling the focal point
• Ever-narrowing circle: reverse of ever widening start a outskirts of crime scene and work toward focal point.
• Zone or sector search: scene is subdivided into segments each sector is searched as an individual unit.
• Strip or grid search: for outdoor areas, area is plotted like a football field start at one sideline and move to other sideline.
• Grid Search: begins after strip search, covers at right angles to the previous search pattern.
states suspects will bring items of evidence into the crime scene and will take items with them when they leave. This exchange of trace evidence includes hairs,fibers,dirt,dust,blood etc.
Locards exchange principle:
Evidence likely to be found at crime scene and amenable to scientific analysis is divided into seven major groups.
• Weapons
• Blood and body fluids
• Imprints or impressions
• Marks of tools used to gain access to building
• Dust and dirt traces
• Questioned documents
• Miscellaneous trace or transfer evidence
The_______ case made it lawful to take sample from an AP charged with a crime in which blood collected as evidence requires a known sample for comparison.
Schmerber
are the basic record of search and the evidence discovered during the search of the crime scene.
Field Notes:
As early as___ sketches or drawings were allowed to be submitted in court.
1857
While at the scene investigator should collect Modus Operandi data the MO segments should include
• Type of crime
• Person attacked
• How attacked
• Means of attack
• Trade mark of perp
• Words spoken or the written note used.
• Vehicle used
• Property stolen
• Name or physical description of suspect.
The advantage of a sketch is that
it can eliminate unnecessary detail that you get with a photograph.
are the approved means of measuring distances in a crime scene.
Steel tapes
Recommended scale range on a diagram should be
1/8 in =1foot for indoor, 1in =20ft for outdoor sketches.
term used for a request by the defense to the prosecutor before trial for disclosure of the police case against his client.
Discovery:
Advantages of videotapes over photographing.
• Provide immediate results
• Can be reused by recording over them
• Visual movement allows you to perceive the scene as it is shown
• Sound may be used.
• Provide immediate results
• Can be reused by recording over them
• Visual movement allows you to perceive the scene as it is shown
• Sound may be used.
The formal procedure for revisiting an accident scene
• Revisit the accident scene daily for no less than a week and weekly on the day of the week of the accident for no less than a month at the same time of day the accident occurred
• Question motorist and peds with particular attention to school children and service personnel
Two kinds of proof are used to answer the question of guilt or innocence in a criminal trial

______ involves eyewitnesses who have through one of there 5 senses experienced something relative to the crime

_________ evidence from which an inference can be drawn and which includes items such as physical evidence, ie fingerprint at the scene but nobody saw suspect there.
Direct Evidence and Circumstantial evidence:
Major types of circumstantial evidence include:
• Weapons
• Blood
• Imprints
• Tool marks
• Hairs
• Fibers
• And questioned documents
Physical evidence can be divided into _____ broad categories

______ cannot be linked to a particular person or an object but only to a class of objects, ie glass, paint shoe prints, example: a certain type of glass such as window glass may be linked to a crime scene.

______: Can be linked to a person or a specific object: Example: fingerprints.
2, Class evidence and Individual evidence
is the identification of firearms, bullets, cartridges and shotgun shells
Ballistics:
refers to the functioning of firearms through the firing cycle
Interior ballistics:
the study of projectiles in flight
Exterior ballistics:
is the procedure of removal of spent bullets without damaging there original condition from dead people.
Postmortem Forensic Science
a common way to test to see if it blood on the scene is
Kastle-Meyer color test
A way to test for the presence of blood at one time is
Luminol Testing.
is a new way to test for blood, unlike luminal you do not need a dark room it will light the blood once in contact.
Bluestar
Two ways to test if it is human blood are
• Precipitin test
• Gel diffusion
markings left on the surface by protruding parts of a person or vehicle
Imprints:
are made by a person or an object in a material softer than the item of evidence making the impression.
Impressions:
Bloody fingerprints left on weapons or at the scene of a crime
Contaminated Prints:
Plastic Prints: when you leave a fingerprint on a soft putty like item, can be lifted with dental plaster.
Plastic Prints:
cant see with the naked eye, caused by transfer of body perspiration or oils present in finger ridges that are left on the surface after contact
Latent prints:
process: the process of getting latent fingerprints from porous surfaces,
Iodine fuming or Ninhydrin
a common glue product heated in a covered tank and the resulting fumes settle on the fingerprint. Usually used on smooth slippery surfaces resistant to dusting.
Cyanoacrylate fuming process:
Fibers can be classified in to ____different groups, which are
• Natural fibers: cotton, wool
• Manufactured fibers: synthetic fibers such as nylon ,polyester, acrylics
Laboratory analysis of these fibers includes the following
• Torn clothing: a piece of material recovered for hit and run can be compared can be compared to a larger piece of clothing it may have been torn from.
• Microscopic examination: looking through a two part microscope as to examine two pieces of fiber side by side
• Analytical technique: The visible light microspectrophotometer
• Torn clothing:
• Microscopic examination:
• Analytical technique:
______ types of fractures happen when glass is broken, which are
Radial Fractures: start at the center or the point of impact and run outward in a star shaped patter.
• Concentric fractures: form concentric circular cracks in the glass around the point of impact.
the crime lab where physical evidence obtained by police is examined
Forensic science laboratory
______ are often identified as forensic scientists
Lab technicians
the profession and scientific discipline directed to the recognition identification, individualization and evaluation of physical evidence by application of the natural sciences in matters of law and science.
Criminalistics:
Human cells contain ____ types of DNA which are
• Nuclear: inherited from both parents
• Mitochondrial: inherited solely from the mother
On a fingerprint ___points of identity indicate a match
12
method used to separate compounds to identify the components
Chromatography:
newest in lab equipment, can analyze samples one hundred times too small for ordinary spectrographic techniques, very expensive. Very useful for the detection of gunpowder on a person.
Neutron Activation Analysis:
used to measure the distinctive radioactive gamma ray emissions
Gamma ray spectrometer:
are now used on suspects hands to test for gun shot residue, which are tested by the Neutron Activation Analysis:.
Parrafin lifting kits
is an etching method that could replace the old way of restoring obliterated serial numbers on firearms and other metal objects.
Ultrasonic cavitation
is the graphical identification of voices, it may challenge fingerprinting as the most positive means of personal identification
Voiceprinting :
Cases usually fall into two categories in regards to the suspect which are
• Known identity: he has been named by witness or vic
• Unknown identity: all other cases with no suspect named
Two basic types of information for the det to follow are:
• Active information: leads to the establishment of a group of suspects
• Passive information: is associative evidence that can be of use only if a group of suspects has been developed, often confirms suspicions against a person as a prime suspect by associating him with a crime scene or the victim
A computerized stolen property record system within a PD will make possible the following
• Shorten the time required to search these reports for items of stolen property
• Allow for searches leading to the identity of persons who frequently sell or pawn used property
• Offer opportunities long after crime committed to locate stolen office equipment by periodic examination of the records of the repair services of manufacturers
The _______ of a criminal is his signature
modus operandi
NIBIN nationwide database deploying ballistic imaging equipment, is maintained by the ATF
The National Integrated Ballistic Information Network
In _____ congress passed the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act, which required states to _________
1994,the act required that states create a sex offender registry
was first state to pass an offender registration law in 1947
California
As long as photographs show ____or _____ suspects of various types and origing this practice does not destroy the validity of future testimony of these witnesses.
5 or 10
6 types of relationships that form strong personal linkages between persons engaged in criminal activity:
• Neighborhood friendships:
• Juvenile hall and prison contacts:
• Family relationships:
• Coethnic contacts: in the ghetto people of alike ethnic groups tend to band together
• Buyer-seller interactions: the person who wants the crime committed and the person he hires to commit the crime
• Lovers
Despite considerations to the contrary,______are a traditional starting point in seeking basic leads
Informants
The role of the ___ ____in enforcing the law against illegal drug sales is that of a go-between
participant informant
A ___ _____ is paid a fee up front and may be hired because of his knowledge of the local drug scene
special employee
Another type of informant on the drug scene is the arrestee who has been______by the arresting officer, the arresting officer persuades the person after being arrested on a minor drug charge to give up his source in exchange for leniency
flipped
Participant informants have been used as _____ in police ____ operations where they sell items to the police in hopes of luring other criminals to sell property to the police.
shills,sting
They are not classsified as persons who assist in developing basic leads in a investigation, they report to the police about a terrorist or other criminal organization from a position of trust and confidence within the group, these agents in place are known as _____ they may or may not be paid for there work, they are not used for spot intelligence.
covert informants, moles
you should try to recruit people who are already members of a group due to there scrutiny of new people true or false
true
A____ ____is a person who is liable to prosecution for the identical offense charged against the defendant or defendants in a pending trial, and the prosecutor offers leniency in return for his or her cooperation
accomplice witness
Recruiting a defendant in an organized crime case begins with teh reiterations of the theme__ __ __ ___, once the witness seeks more information the standard deal is
1.
2.
1. In return for full cooperation will be given partial or full immunity
2. after testimony is complete will be accepted in witness protection plan (state/federal)
Is a observation of people and places by investigators to develop investigative leads, its basic function is to bring the investigation into a sharp focus by supplying detailed info about the person, often hidden, it seeks a specific activity and significant info rather than merely passive observation
surveillance
is nothing more than keeping watch on a particular suspect or vehicle , may be aided by binoculars or a the scope
Visual surveillance
Is a stakeout or plant located within a building of possible with observations made through available windows or doors, panel trucks and campers have been converted to fixed observation posts.
fixed visual surveillance
A ___ _____ surveillance or tail shadow may be on foot , may be in a vehicle or any combination, it is unique because it keeps the suspect in view from place to place rather than at certain places
Moving visual
in the moving visual surveillance is it ideal to have two to three teams with members rotating to the position of closest contact, it has a particular advantage because it lessens the chance of detection by the suspect because the same person is not always following him.
True
a device that electronically signals the location of automobiles or other object to which it is affixed is known as a
bumper beeper
another device used to track people or cars through cell phones
GPS
A combination of ____ and _____ surveillance's both on foot and vehicle have been found to be effective in the on scene apprehension of criminals who have committed a series of crimes
fixed and mobile
The object of ______is to collect information on the activities of a suspect, the persons in contact with him or her and the places frequented
surveillance
In _____ the federal court ruled that without a valid warrant or reasonable cause a person should be free from the eyes of the law while in the privacy of his home, peering into the windows by ______was the complained -about action
1968, stealth
wiretapping and electronic eavesdropping are the primary forms of ____ _____ by listening, has been deemed dirty business by the U.S. Supreme Court
audio surveillance
The ______ of _____ _____ is a very difficult surveillance to detect,
interception of telephone communication
When places or people have been wired for sound this has been termed
Bugging
The courts have ruled that installing a bugging device without a search warrant is against your 4th amendment and is considered a violation of such.
False, courts have ruled it is not against your 4th amendment, and that the 4th amendment protects people not places
Consensual electronic surveillance is also known as ___ ____, it is primarily used to secure record of a conversation in which the person wired for sound is a participant
participant monitoring
Since electronic surveillance that is carried out with the consent of one of the parties to a conversation is not a search within the meaning of the 4th amendment , this type of surveillance does or does not require a previous judicial authorization
does not
Investigators contemplating using audio surveillance should avoid it because of the undertone of "too hard" associated with it, true or false
False, undertone of dirty business is associated with it
___ ___ techniques are based on the capability of certain fluorescent preparations to stain a persons hands or clothing upon contact and thus to offer observable proof of a connection between the stained person and the object under surveillance, may be used in supplementing a visual surveillance , good for catching thieves or burglars
Contact Surveillance.
In 1968 congress codified the requirements for obtaining coury authority to intercept oral and wire communications in title III of the omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act , this act was amended in 1994 when congress passed the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), true or false
true
I the secret or clandestine collecting and evaluating of information about crime and criminals not normally available to investigator through overt sources
Intelligence
name the six stages of police intelligence process
1. needs: needs for info on unsolved crimes
2. collection. gathering of info on matters of interest Overt collections and covert collections of info
3.evaluation and collation: weeding out useless info and arranging it into a useable database
4. Analysis -Interpretation: converts info into intelligence, is the core area of police intelligence process
5. dissemination: police intelligence reports are released to users on a need to know factor
6. Reevaluation: A postmortem review of the effectiveness of police intelligence reports
Is ideal for profile work and assists in showing the relationships between a number of people and organizations in a visual form, ie charts linking people within groups, basically a drawing of a chart to show some type of criminal element
Link analysis
The use of police personnel as under cover agents is an ______approach to the problem of securing info about criminal operations from the inside
ethical
Three types of line ups used
field line up: done by witnesses in the field
2. Photographic line up: done by showing a witness a number of photos
3. Physical lineup: as seen on TV
_______Is a person to person conversation for the purpose of obtaining information about a crime or its circumstances
Interview
5 interview essentials are
1. Privacy
2. Rapport Building
3. Competency and credibility Issues
4. Interview Structure
5. Listening
____ or ____ occurs when a witness overhears other witnesses discussing their observations and then take on some , if not all , of their information as there own
reverse transference or retroactive interference
What does Rapport Building do during the interview process
enhances the bonding process between the witness and the interviewer
What is Rapport
a developing of a harmonious relationship with another person
the goal of rapport building is to make the witness fell comfortable, witnesses who are comfortable tend to talk more than witnesses who are uncomfortable
true
Wether or not the person is of sound mind and are they intoxicated. Age should be regarded in the fact if they are young or very elderly, there is ______t to testify in court.
no age limit
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

What are the four steps involved with the interview structure
The first step is basic open ended questions, let the witness talk do not write down any notes as this could be intimidating.

The second step is having the witness repeat the story: while the investigator takes notes, also is the time to check for the credibility and competency of the witness

The third step is going over the notes with the witness: this ensures the accuracy of the notes taken.

The fourth step is : thanking the witness for cooperating and asking for any additional info the witness wants to give
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

During the interview process look for physical signs of deception which are 4 of the following
• Comfort/discomfort: people in discomfort are usually lying
• Emphasis: Most liars do not emphasis there words
• Synchrony: A interview that is out of sync or lacks harmony indicates the person being interviewed could be lying
• Perception management: they try to demonstrate the implausibility of their involvement in committing a crime by saying, “lying is beneath me”
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

what is Neurolinguistic Eye Movement
: if eyes go to there left they are telling the truth if they go to the right they are trying to fabricate a lie
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

Modern polygraphs have three components or channels for recording the anatomical response to questions about the situation which are
• Pneumograph: records respiration
• Galvanograph: records electrodermal response
• Cardiograph: records changes in pulse rate
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

In ref to the polygraph machine the ____is the most reliable indicator of deception
cardiograph which records changes in pulse rate
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

in ref to the polygraph machine the ____is the least dependable detection of deception
galvanic skin response
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

The procedure in a lie detector test has three phases which are
introductory periods, the actual testing phase and a closing.
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

during the polygraph the ___round of questions is _____ as to establish a normal level of response, the core area of testing is when the so called peak of ___questions related to the actual circumstances of the crime are asked
1st
irrelevant
tension
Chapter 7 Interviewing and interrogations

is a state resembling normal sleep.
Hypnosis
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

______is an investigative technique used to enhance a witness’s ability to recall events
Cognitive Interviewing
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

The purpose of taking a statement from a witness is generally threefold
1. provide a written record that will allow a prosecutor to evaluate the case and plan its presentation at trial
2. enable the prosecutor to monitor the testimony of the witness in court
3. hold a witness that is , discourage surprise testimony by providing a possible base for impeaching the witness
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

____is defined as the adversarial questioning of a suspect with the goal of soliciting an admission or confession of guilt.
Interrogation
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

: is a person who experiences considerable feelings of remorse and mental anguish as a result of committing the offense, he has a troubled conscience , typically they try to commit personal crimes such as homicides, rapes, and physical assaults
• Emotional offender
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation
is a person who ordinarily does not experience a troubled conscience as a result of committing a crime, may have a antisocial disorder, or the career criminal who looks at committing crimes as a business, the most effective tactic to use on this offender is the Factual Analysis Approach, this approach appeals to the common sense and reasoning rather than emotions and is designed to persuade him that his guilt is established and consequently the intelligent choice to make is to tell the truth.
• Nonemotional offender
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

Investigators must conduct interrogations with the belief that suspects, when presented with the proper avenue , will use it to confess their crimes. true or false
true
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

Three methods used to document a suspects confession
1. video recording
2. audio recording
3. writing
Chapter 7 Interviewing and Interrogation

In the final analysis, the confession documented by video or audio recording must be memorialized in writing. true or false
true
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

: premeditated killing of another human being with malice, or wrongful intent. If death occurs as the result of the commission of a felony, such as arson, robbery, burglary or sexual assault , then the felony murder rule would apply, which makes the killing one of the first degree regardless of the lack of intent or premeditation.
First Degree Murder
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

involves the killing of another but without the element of premeditation.
Second Degree Murder
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

is defined as the unlawful killing of another person without malice or premeditation either voluntarily or involuntarily.
Manslaughter:
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

involves a killing that is done in the heat of passion
• Voluntary Manslaughter
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

is the appropriate charge when the death occurs while the perpetrator was involved in the commission of an unlawful act not amounting to a felony
• Involuntary manslaughter
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

The corpus delicti of all criminal homicide comprises the following
• Of the death of a human being
• Of a criminal agency, which means the death was caused by another persons unlawful act or omission
• That the criminal agency was the proximate cause of the death
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

The ____ is a major method of detecting murder.
autopsy
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence
The death must be of a human being and must occur within a certain period of time after the act causing the injury. Usually ___to_____years
1 to 3
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

The detection of criminal homicide is based on finding the answers to four classic questions:
1. what was the cause of death
2. what were the means (agency) that caused death
3. Was the homicide excusable of justifiable
4. who was responsible for causing death (the agent
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

The general appearance of the body and its ______ ____ afford the pathologist a means of fixing the time of death within reasonable limits.
stomach contents
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

___ ____ and ____ indicate the time of death in on the scene examination
Body temperature, lividity and rigor mortis
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

Generally pathologists classify and report the nature of wounds as follows
1. incised wounds. Spindle shaped in stabbing, linear in cutting
2. lacerated wounds: irregularly edged, some tearing
3. contusions: bruises, discolorations, hematoma
4. Abrasions: scratches, trivial wounds
5. gunshot wounds
6. antemortem. Or postmortem
7. age of wound: signs of healing or decay
8. opinion about wound: accidental, suicidal, homicidal
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Classically the autopsy report should provide information on the following 7 areas
1. cause of death ie natural, accident, suicide, homicide, undetermined
2. if a weapon or substance caused death
3. time of death in relationship to wound
4. whether the scene where body was found was scene of death or if it was moved
5. evidence of chronic illness or other disease
6. evidence of blood, hair, or skin other than victims
7. evidence of sexual knowledge or deviancy
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

______specializes in the detection of chemical, physical and biological toxins.
Toxicologist
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

The major problem when dealing with burned skeletal or mutilated remains is
locating the ante mortem or before death records of the deceased
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

There is no database for dental records. true or false
true
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Teeth are a good indicator of age especially when the person is a child or young adult due to tooth formation. Tooth formation usually ends when a person is _____ but a forensic dentist can make an estimate as to a person’s age based upon wear on the teeth and the transparency of the roots of the teeth which occurs with age.
21 yoa,
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

After death the body begins to cool through the process of ___ ____, the body temperature falls until it reaches the ambient air temperature, usually occurs within __ to__ hours
algor mortis
18 to 20 hours
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Rigor Mortis usually appears within __ to__ hours., starts in the jaw and neck and proceeds to the trunk and extremities and is complete within _to_ hours., remains for _to_ days and disappears in the same order in which it appears.
2 to 6 hours
6 to 12 hours
2 to 3 days
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Postmortem lividity, due to gravity when the blood stops circulating it begins to settle to the lowest portion of the body. Is noticeable approx within ___hour after death and is fully developed within _to_hours. Lividity appears as__or___ marks on the skin. Fresh livid stains are not produced by a change in position __hours after death.
1
3to4
blue or reddish
12
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Putrefaction: decomposition begins at the time of death as a result of two processes
• autolysis action
• bacterial action
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

: occurs by a chemical breakdown of the body that results in the softening and liquefaction of body tissues.
Autolysis:
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

: converts body tissue into liquids and gases
Bacterial action
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

A checklist for a criminal homicide investigation should be divided into 5 stages which are
1. Crime scene
2. postscene
3. Lead Development
4. Identification and Arrest
5. Case Preparation
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Patterns of Criminal Homicides 8 of them
• The anger killing, a dispute occurs and anger develops the vic is attacked and killed
• The triangle killing: usually between husband and girlfriend kill the wife or vise versa
• The revenge killing: The history of involvement between the vic and the suspects usually will disclose the motive of revenge or jealousy
• Killing for profit: is closely aligned with the triangle killing situation, the victim is eliminated to gain some benefit
• Random Killing: it has a motive, the killing of a complete stranger is the most difficult to solve.
• Murder-suicide:
• Sex and Sadism: is marked by unusual violence
• Felony Murder: does not result from an angered attack, a triangle, revenge , jealousy, or profit motivation , random chance murder-suicide, or sex and sadism, rather death results from injuries inflicted by someone in the act of committing a felony.
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

: is the killing of a number of victims by one or more persons working in concert. Mass murder, spree murder, and serial murder are the various types of multicide.
Multicide:
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

: Is the homicide of four or more victims during a single event at one location.
Mass Murder:
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

: Is the killing of three or more persons within a relatively short time frame.
Spree Murder
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

: may make special efforts to elude detection. May continue to kill for weeks, months, and often years before they are caught, if at all.
Serial Killers
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

: is two or more separate murders when an individual, acting alone or with another, commits multiple homicides over a period time with breaks between each murder event.
Serial Murder
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

is propelled to kill by voices he or she hears or visions he or she sees. Is out of touch with reality is a psychotic.
Visionary Serial Killer:
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence

feels a need on a conscious level to eradicate a certain group of people, Is not psychotic he is in touch with reality
Mission Serial killer:
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:
: feels a need on a conscious level to eradicate a certain group of people, Is not psychotic he is in touch with reality
Mission Serial killer
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

ie lust killer or thrill killer, This killer has made a connection between personal violence and sexual gratification, They often murder because they derive pleasure from the act, killing for them is an eroticized experience. Also under this category is the comfort-oriented serial murderer, who kills for personal gain, is a professional assassin.
Hedonistic Serial Killer
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

receives sexual gratification from the complete domination of his victim, This murderer is psychologically rooted in reality: a true sociopath who lives by his own personal rules and guidelines.
Power and control serial killer
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

are usually above average in intelligence they are methodical and cunning.
Organized offenders
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

are inadequate individuals who are experiencing intense sadistic sexual fantasies and may suddenly act out these fantasies on a victim of opportunity, crime scene would be disorganized.
Disorganized offenders
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Types of Stalkers there are six of them
• Celebrity Stalker: victim known on an impersonal level
• Lust: Predatory sex, the victim is a stranger to the assailant, escalates to murder
• Hit stalker: Professional killer
• Love-scorned stalker: intends violence against known victim
• Domestic Stalker: ex-lover or spouse, get even violence
• Political Stalker, Selected victim is a stranger to the assailant.
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

is an unlawful attempt coupled with the present ability, to commit an injury on another person. In other words it is an attempt to commit a battery.
Assault
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Cases of child abuse brought to the attention of police or discovered by them are more properly classed as ___ ___ ___
Battered Child Syndrome.
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Signs of physical abuse to a child: there are four of them
• Damage to the skin
• Brain damage
• Bone damage
• Internal injuries
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs primarily in children ___ ___ of age or younger because their necks lack muscle control and their heads are heavier than the rest of their bodies.
18 months
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

is a classic medical symptom associated with shaken baby syndrome, which is bleeding in the back of the eyeballs.
Retinal hemorrhage
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Bruise scale age 0f bruise
Red 0-2 days
Blue,purple 2-5 days
Green 5-7 days
Yellow 7-10 days
Brown 10-14 days
No further evidence of bruising 2-4 weeks

true or false
true
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

is a classic medical symptom associated with shaken baby syndrome, which is bleeding in the back of the eyeballs.
Retinal hemorrhage
Chapter 8 Crimes of Violence:

Bruise scale age 0f bruise
Red 0-2 days
Blue,purple 2-5 days
Green 5-7 days
Yellow 7-10 days
Brown 10-14 days
No further evidence of bruising 2-4 weeks

true or false
true