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143 Cards in this Set

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Cranial nerve I
Olfactory Bulbs (nerve)
why is the olfactory nerve debated NOT to be a cranial nerve
Because it is the only special sensation nerve that does not come back to the thalamus portion of the brainstem (goes directly to cerebral cortex)
Where does the cranial nerve I come back to
the cerebral cortex
Lesion in CN I causes?
Loss of smell
What is the CN II called?
Optic nerve
CN II nerve/sensry component is?
Vision
Where does the nerve component cross at?
Optic Chiasm
Where do ganglion cells of retina leave at?
optic foramen
In the vision field, info that hits retina from the nasal half of visual field goes where in the brain?
Stays on the the same side
In the vision feild, info that hits retina from the nasal half of visual field goes where in the brain?
Cross over at the optic chiasm
lesion at the optic nerve results in?
Blind in one eye
Lesion at the optic chiasm results in
Bitemporal hemianopsia ( lesion after crossing over will fo to the cortex) will have parital lloss of vision in both eyes due to crossing over of fibers.
lesion at the optic tract results in?
left or right homonymous hemianopsia
lesion at the visual cortex results in?
homonymous hemianopsia- ie. partial loss of vision
Name CN III
Occulomotor
What is cranial nerve III adjacent to?
Mammillary bodies
What muscles does the CN III innervate?
all the ciliary muscle, and all the extraocular muscels except for the superior oblique muscle and the lateral rectus muscle. Atteched to eyeball
Motor component of CN III (what direction)
moves eye mediall: lateral rotation of eyeball
Name CN IV
Trochlear
What is the only CN that comes in from the posterior/dorsal surface; in/near pons)
Trochlear
What does the trochlear nerve innervate
the extrinsic muscle of the eye called the superior oblique
What is the motor function of trochlear nerve
turning eyeball down and out
what happens if trochlear is lesioned
very rare
what is the CN V called
Trigeminal
Where does CN V orginate
Pons
What CN is the prinicipal sensory nerve for the head
Trigeminal
Where does the sensory function of trigeminal occur
face, oral-nasal chmaber, tongue, floor of the mouth, dentition
What are the three divisions of the trigeminal
1. opthalmic division (V1) Sensory
2.Maxillary division (V2) ""
3. Mandibular division (V3)''[''
Does trigeminal nerve have a motor component?
Yes, it is a mixed nerve
What is the motor component fun't of trigeminal?
Responsible for pain, temperature, and propio. big part in muscles of mastication, divides face in 3 regions
what is the results of a lesion of trigeminal? what called?
Tic Douloureux (trigeminal neuralgia) - unbearable pian due to light tough, small temp change
What is the name of the VI CN
Abducens
Where is the VI CN orgin?
located at the junction of medulla oblongata and the pons
what is the motor fun't of the VI CN
Innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye: moves eye laterally (abduction)
What is the result of leion of VI CN
eye will not follow finger laterally
WHat is the name of the VII CN
Facial Nerve
What component is larger for facial nerve sensory or motor?
Motor component
What is the somatic mote fun't of VII and what muscle?
From facial nucleus in pons tp facial muscles, scalp, and nceck muscle contraction of muscles of facial expresion.
Parasympathathetic motor fun't of VII
controls secretion of tears and salvia
What is the parasympathetic motor nerve of VII called
intermediate nerve of wrisberg
what is the special sensory component of VII
tastefrom anterior 2/3 of tongue
what is the name of the VIII CN
Vestibulocochlear
where does VII and VII leave the skull?
to the inner ear, after which they branch off
VIII more motor or sensory
VIII is a sensory only nerve
what sensory function does VIII nerve do?
hearing and balancing
what does the cochlear branch do?
hearing
what does the vestibular branch of VIII do?
balance and equilibrium
what occurs if lesion of cochlear branch prior to synapsing in cochlear nuclei?
deafness ear on same side
What occurs if lesion of cochlear branch after synapsing in nuclei?
50% of 2nd fibers cross 50% don't, partial deafness in both ears
lesion in vestibular branch
distubance anywhere causes loss of balance and equilibrium "dizziness".
What is the motor fun't of the IX ? what does it innervates?
innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle for swallowing
what is the parasympathetic motor function of Glossopharyngeal
parotid gland secretion of saliva
what is the sensory fun't of IX
general sensation from pharynx and tonsilar area (Gag reflex) and taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue.
IX response of Increased BP
leads to vagal break on heart
what occurs if glossopharngeal is lesioned
loss of gag reflex, slight dysphagia(not as big as X) loss of taste post 1/3 tongue, deviation of uvula opp side of lesion post. wall of pharynx does not move
loss of general sensations from back of throat
Generall difficult to differentiate between the effects of lesions between what two CN
IX X swallowing/talking
What is the name of the X CN
Vagus Nerve
What are the two motor component of X
Somatic and parasympathetic
what is the somatic fun't of X
innervatation of pharynx, larynx, and striated muscle (upper 1/3) esophagus imp swall/talk; all the way down to GI and jun't of transverse and descending colon > 20ft
what is the parasympathetic autonomic fun't of X
cardiovascular heart rate, lower esophagus, breathing, stomach , GI , 2/3 LI
What occurs if lesion vagus nerve
aphonia, dysphonia, loss, hoarseness, dysphagia, loss of gag reflex, coughing
Name the XI CN
Spinal accessory
What does CN XI gothrough first 2nd?
Goes through the foramen magnum b4 going through the jugular foramen. bc ascend to skull b4 leaves
what us the motoe function of XI
motor- innervates sternocleidomastoid (turns head to opp side) and upper fibres of Trapezius ( shrugging of shoulders)
what occurs if XI is lesioned
weakness in turning head winging of scapula (shoulder may droop)
what is the reference of XI spinal accessory
the inferior olivary nucleus
WHat is the name of XII CN
Hypoglossia
what is the motor fun't of XII
innervates intrinsic tongue muscle and extrinsic ones , protrudes and moves tongue to side
what occurs if xii is lesioned
on protrusion of the tongue it will deviate to the side of the lesion due to paralysis of genioglossus muscle
I olfactory bulbs/nerves are coming back via?
cribiform plate
II optic nerve via
optic canal/foramen ( underneath the lesser wings)
III oculomotor nerve vie
superior orbital fissure
IV trochlear via
superior orbital fissure
VI abducent nerve via
superior orbital fissure
opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve V1
superior orbital fissure
what nerve pass through a fissure underneath the lesser wing of sphenoid ( superior orbital fissure)
III, IV, VI, V1
Facial nerve via
opening at temporal bone called stylomasid foramen to inner ear chamber call internal acoustic meatus
VIII vestibulocochlear nerve
stylomasid foramen to internal acoustic meatus
V2 maxillary nerve via
foramen rotundum
baslar plate containsensory or motor
motor
baslar plate is locarted posterior or anterior
anterior
aggregation of nueron in CNS =
nuclei
aggregation of nuerons adjacent to brainstem and spinal cord=
ganglia
where are special cellular components found
NOT found in the spinal cord, only found in the brain stem
define general
can be efferenet aor afferent; general function are found throughout body
"special" fun't are only asso w/
the head and cranial nerves
what are body building block that develops along the long axis of the cell body
somites
this can also describe the body as a whole in its environment
somites
what does viscerl include
visceral tubular organs: gut tube, genital urinary tubes, respiratory, vascular tubes
alar plate contain what four nerve groups
special somatic afferent(SSA), special visceral afferent (SVA), general somatic afferent(GSA), general visceral afferent (GVA
what CN are SSA
1, 2, 8
what does SSA mean and how CN contributes in this function
somatic in this cse means how the info is taken in.
CNI- olfactory- smell
CNII- optic-vision
CN VIII- Vestibulocochlear- sound and balnce
what CN are asso w/ SVA
1,7,9,10
SVA CN fun't
opening og the respiratory/gi tract in head
CNI (olfactory) nose (nerves in nasal chamber
CN VII, CNIX glossopharyngeal, CN X vagus -> GI/respiratory
taste sensation - 3 nerves ant 2/3 facial VII., pos 1/3 by !X glossalpharyngeal, root of tongue CN X
what CN are asso w/ GSA
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 11?
what is cn II fun't in GSA
oculomotor- extraocular muscles
CN IV fun't in GSA
extraocular muscle
CN VI fun't in GSA
extraocular muscle
CN VII fun't in GSA
facial expression
CN IX fun't in GSA
glossopharyngeal has skeletal muscle components
CN X in GSA
pain touch
CN XI in GSA
accessory
CN XII fun't in GSA
not sure how propioreception on tongue works
what CN asso w/ GVA
9,10
CN fun't in GVA
respiratory tract/ gut tube
touch , prs, from pharyngeal wall (upper esophagus stretch) w
what does CN IX innervate via GVA
Carotid sinus
What does CN X innervate in GVA
atrial reception in heart and also the mucosal lining of larynx and GI
What three types of nerves are in the Basilar plate
General Visceral Efferent (GVE), special visceral efferent (SVE), General somatic efferent (GSE)
what CN are asso w/ GVE
3,7,9,10
what is main target CN in GVE? what part of nervous system in this done by?
Glandular smooth muscel w/in visceral tubular system
parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
what glands does CN VII innervare via GVE
Submandibular, sublingual, mucosal, nasal mucosal, lacrimal glands
what gland does CN IX innervate via GVE
Parotid gland
what glans goes CN X innervate via GVE/
mucosal glands in laryngeal region, esophagus, gut tube, respiratory tract (even hrt)
what muscle not used in GVE
facial expression (somatic), taste (SVE
is dialation of pupils asso w/ CN in GVE
no- that is part of sympathetic not para
GVE is synonymous w/?
autonomic nervous, whether sym or para
what CN are asso w/ SVE
5,7, 9, 10, 11?
what does the majority of e develop from
brachial/visceral arches (and not from somites( ( branchiomeric skeletal muscles)
where do brachiomeric muscle exist
in head and upper neck ( all other skel musc in bod are somatic
brachial arches are asso w/ what nerve group
SVE
1st b. arch is called
mandibular arch
1st b arch becomes
the jaw
1st b arch asso w/ what nerve
CN V trigeminal
1st b arch asso muscle become
muscle of mastication (jaws)
2nd b arch asso w/ what CN
CN VII facial
2nd b arch muscle are asso w/
facial expression
3rd arch asso w/ what CN
CN IX glossopharyngeal
in 3rd b arch what does CN IX innervate
muscle of pharynx (stylophargngeus) including back of tongue
4th, 5th, 6th, arch asso w/ what CN
VAgus
4,5,6th arch sensory innervated to?
pharynx and larynx
what CN are asso w/ GSE
3,4,6,12
where nerves found in GSE
both in brainstem and spinal cor
preotic somites are in what nerve group
GSE
preotic somites include/and located
just in front of ear, CNIII (oculomotr), IV (trochear) VI abducens
Preoccipital somites include
CN XII (hypoglossal): intrinsic and extrinsic muscle of the tongue
V3 mandibular nerve via
foramen ovale- has motor innervation of skeletal muscle
IX glossapharngeal via
jugular foramen
X vagus via
jugular foramen
XI spinal accessory via
jugular foramen
XII hypoglossal nerve via
hypoglossal canal which is just above occipital condyle
meningeal artery and maxillar artery via
foramen spinosum
alar plate contain sensory or mote
sensory
alar plate is located postierior or antierior
posterior