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84 Cards in this Set

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ESTROGEN-OVARIES-MATURATION REPRO/PERIOD
TESTOSTERONE-TESTES-MATURATION/SPMPRODUC
EPINEPHRINE-ADMEDULA-FIGHT/FLIGHT RESPON
THROXINE-THYROID-INCREASE ENERGY/IODINE
AB BLOOD-AB ANTIGENS,NO AB ANTIBODIES
PROTHROMIN-CHGS TO THROMIN IPO THROMPLSN
...
.
ALBUMIN-BLOOD VOL BY PULLING FLUID INTO
GLOBULINS-ANTIBODIES PROTECT A/DISEASE
HEMOGLOBIN-IRON/PROTEIN IN RBC RED COLOR
MONOCYTES-PHAGOCYTIC
NEUTROPHILS-MOST ABUNDANT-PHAGOCYTIC
LYMPHOCYTES-PRODUCE ANTIBODIES
.
.
EOSINOPHILS-INC IN ALLERGIC REACTIONS
BASOPHILS-INC IN INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS
KIDNEY-PRODUCES ERYTHROPOITIN HYPOXIA
HEMOGLOBIN-O2 CARRYING RBC
CALCIUM-BLOOD CLOTTING
MEMORY CELLS REMEMBER A FOREIGN ANTIGEN
.
.
NATURAL ACTIVE-GET DISEASE
NATURAL PASSIVE-MOTHER T/MILK OR PLACNTA
ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE-IMMUN/VACCINES
ARTIFICIAL PASSIVE-IMMUNE SERUM/ANIMALS
.
.
1.CHROMATIN DUPLICATES
2.CHROMOSOMES FRM/CENTR.MOV & FORM SPNDL
3.CHROM SEP & MOVE TO OPP SIDES OF CELL
4.CHROMO LINE UP ON THE MITOTIC SPINDLE
5.CELL MEMBRANE PINCHES IN
6. 2CELLS W/HLF, 46 CHROM RESULT
.
.
NUCLEUS-CONTROL CENTER OF CELL
MITOCHONDRIA-SITE OF ATP PRODUCTION
GOLGI BODY-TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
LYSOSOME-ENZYMES TO DESTROY PATHAGENS
CELLMEMBRANE-ALLOWS IN AND OUT OF CELL
RIBOSOME-SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
.
.
1.DNA SEP,MRNA MATCHES UP W/DNA CODE
2.MRNA LEAVES NUCLEUS W/CODE TO RIBOSOME
3.TRNA BRINGS AMINOS TO RIBO, BY THE CODE
4. PROTEIN IS BORN
.
.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE-PROTECTS/COVERS
CONNECTIVE TISSUE-CONNECTS/SUPPORTS
MUSCLE TISSUE-PRODUCES MOVEMENT
NERVOUS TISSUE-CONDUCTS IMPULSE
.
.
EPITHELIAL-SQUAMOUS/CUBOIDAL
CONNECTIVE-AREOLAR,ADIPOSE,BONE
MUSCLE-SMOOTH
NERVOUS-SENSORY,GRAY MATTER
.
.
NUTRIENTS THAT ARE BONE MATRIX?CA & P
IRR BONE-VERTABRAE,METACARPALS,PATELLA
ADDUCTORS-ADDUCT THE LEGS
BICEPS FEMORIS-FLEXES FOREARM
TRICEPS BRACHII-EXTENDS FOREARM
LATISSIMIS DORSI-ADDUCTS ARM MAS-CHEW
.
.
VAGUS-CRAN NRV-SWLLW,DEC HR,VOIC,INCGUT
ABDUCENS-CRAN NRV-EYE MOVE CROSSEYE
TROCHLEAR-CRANRV-EYE MOVEMENTS FOLLOW
HYPOGLOSSAL-CRANRV-TONGUE MOVEMENT
BASAL GANGLIA-GRY MATTER ON CERB HEMI
MYELIN-FAT AROUND AXONS
.
.
NEUROLEMMA-OUTERCELL MEMB.OF SWAN CELL
OLFACTORY-CRN NRV-SENSE OF SMELL
GLOSSOPHARNGEL-CRNRV-SWALLOW/TASTE
PONS-BRNSTM-2WAY CONDUCTION/HELP RESPIRA
VENTRICLES-FLUID FILLED SPACES INSID BRN
SINUSES-HOLLOWED OUT CAVITY OF SKULL
.
.
ACOUSTIC-CRAN NRV-HEARING/BALANCE
TROCHLEAR-CRAN NRV-FOLLOW EYES LEFT/RIGH
FACIAL-CRAN NRV-TASTE/FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
RECEPTORS FOR VISION ARE HERE? RETINA
CORNEA-TRANSPARENT CENTER-ALLOWS LGT IN
LENS-BEHIND IRIS-REFRACTS LIGHT/BENDS
.
.
IRIS-CONTROLS LIGHT INSIDE EYE
REFRACTS LGT-CORN,AQHUM,LENS,VIT HUM
RECEPTORS FOR HEAR/BAL-INNER EAR
OUTER EAR-DIRECTS SOUND WAVES
MIDDLE EAR-VIBRATES/EQUAL PRESSURE
EARDRUM-VIBRATES
.
.
AQ HUMOR NURISHES LENS & CORNEA
SHAPE OF LENS CHANGED BY? CILIARY MUSCLE
VIT HUMOR?GIVES SHAPE TO EYEBALL
CANAL OF SCHLEM?DRAINS TEARS F/TEARDUCT
1ST PART OF EYE THAT REFRACTS?CORNEA
2ND PART OF EYE THAT REFRACTS?AQ HUMOR
.
.
3RD PART OF EYE TO REFRACT? LENS
4TH PART OF EYE TO REFRACT? VIT HUMOR
EUSTACHIAN TUBE-EQUALIZES PRESSURE
AUDITORY CANAL-PATHWAY FOR SOUND
OVAL WINDOW-UNDER STAPES-VIBRATES
SEMICIRCULAR CANAL-BALANCE
.
.
3RD PART OF EYE TO REFRACT? LENS
4TH PART OF EYE TO REFRACT? VIT HUMOR
EUSTACHIAN TUBE-EQUALIZES PRESSURE
AUDITORY CANAL-PATHWAY FOR SOUND
OVAL WINDOW-UNDER STAPES-VIBRATES
SEMICIRCULAR CANAL-BALANCE
.
.
INSULIN-BETA-DECR BLOOD GLUCOSE
CORTISOL-ADCORTX-CONS GLU BRN/NSAID
GLUCAGON-ALPHA-INCREASES GLUCOSE
GH-SOMATROPIN-P/A-PROMOTES GROWTH OF TIS
FSH-P/A-INITIATES EGG/SPERM PRODUCTION
LH-P/A-FEMALE OVULATION
.
.
TEMPORAL-REC/INTR IMPUL FROM NOSE/EARS
DECREASED PERISTALSIS-SYMPATHETIC
PUPIL CONSTRICTION-PARASYMPATHETIC
DECREASED HEARTRATE-PARASYMPATHETIC
INCREASED SALIVA-PARASYMPATHETIC
TRIGEMINAL-CRANIAL NRV FACIAL/CHEWING
.
.
POLARIZATION-NA STAY OUTSIDE OF CELL
REPOLARIZATION-NA MOVE OUT OF CELL
SYNAPSE-IMPULSE CARRIED BY NEUROTRANSMIT
MYLIN SHEATH-FAT AROUND AXONS OUTSIDECNS
MOTOR/EFFERENT CARRY AWAY FROM CNS
DENDRITE-RECEPTOR OF SENSORY NEURON
.
.
AXON-CARRY IMPULSE AWAY FROM CELL BODY
DENDRITE>CELLBODY>AXON
DORSAL ROOT-SENSORY NEURONS TO SPINALCRD
VENTRAL ROOT-MOTOR NEURONS FROM SPNLCRD
GRAYMATTER-OUTER/CERCORTEX UNMYLINCELBOD
WHITEMATTER-INNER CONNECTS CERCORTEX
.
.
CORPUS CALLOSUM-CONN 2CERBRAL HEMISPHERE
PIA MATER-INNER LAYER OF MENINGES
BASAL GANGLIA-CON AUTO MOVE/POS/FACIAL
REGULATES MUS TONE/COORD?CEREBELLUM
MEDOBLAG-BRAINSTEM CONTROLS BP-P-R
THALAMUS-SORTS/DIRECTS IMPULSES TO BRAIN
.
.
CSF-FORMED BY CHOROID PLEXUS/LAT VENTRI
DURAMATER-OUTERMOST LAYER OF MENINGES
ARACHNOID VILLI-BLD IN THE DURA SPACE
AQ. OF SYVIUS-CAN W/3 & 4 VENTR OF BRAIN
EFFERENT-MOTOR NEURON CARRY AWAY FROMCNS
DEPOLARIZATION-NA MOVE INTO CELL
.
.
TENDON? MUSCLE TO BONE
ANTAGONIST? OPPOSITE MOVEMENT
ADDUCTS? MOVE TOWARD MIDLINE
ABDUCTS? MOVE AWAY MIDLINE
EXTENDS ARM? TRICEPS BRACHII
ROTATES ARM? SUPINATION
.
.
ORIGIN? REMAINS STATIONARY
INSERTION? THE OTHER BONE MOVES
THE INSERTION MOVES TOWARDS THE INSERTIN
DORSI FLEX? TIBIALIS ANTERIOR(WK ON HEEL
PLANTAR FLEX? GASTROCNEMIUS-TIP TOE
HAMSTRINGS/BICEPS FEMORIS-FLEX LOW LEG
/
/
DELTOID-ABDUCT YOUR ARM
PECTORALIS MAJOR-FLEX ADDUCTS ARM
TRAPEZIUS-EXTENDS HEAD,NECK,ADDUCT SCAP
STERNOMAST-ROTATES FLEX HEAD AND NECK
INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION SITE-REC FEMORIS
BRAIN-VOL MOVEMENT?FRONTAL LOBE
/
/
CEREBELLUM-MUSCLE ACT/BAL/POS/TONE/EQUIL
PARIETAL-SENSORY,TOUCH,TEMP,PAIN,PRESSUR
HYPOTHALAMUS-B.TEMP,WATERBAL,SEX,APP,SLP
SENSORY-CARRY IMP TO CNS
MOTOR-CARRY FROM CNS
MIXED-BOTH TO AND FROM CNS
/
/
AXIAL? HEAD AND TRUNK
APPENDICULAR? BONES OF EXTREMITIES
DIATHROSIS?HINGE,PIVOT,SADDLE,B/S,COND
MANDIBLE--CHEWING
LIGAMENTS? BONE TO BONE
FASCIA? SEPARATES MUSCLES
.
.
HAIR ROOT/HAIR FOLICLE-UNDERGO MITOSIS
TINY MUSCLE ON FOLLICLE/GOOSE BUMPS
HAIR CELLS ARE DEAD BUT CONTAIN KERATIN
LARGE BONE ON LOWER LEG? TIBIA
LARGE BONE ON UPPER LEG? FEMUR
SMALL BONE LOWER ARM PINKY SIDE?ULNA
.
.
SMALL BONE LOWER LEG? FIBULA
OSTEOCLASTS? BONE BREAKERS
OSTEOCYTES? BONE CELLS
OSTEOBLASTS? BONE BUILDERS
MEGAKARYOCYTES? LG CELL/BREAKS DOWN
FEMUR & HIPBONE? BALL & SOCKET
.
.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE-OPEN TO EXTERIOR OF BODY
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE-FLUID INTO JOINT/TEN
FASCIA-SEPARATES MUSCLES
FIB CONN TIS-FORMS TEN/LIGAMENTS
BONE--CONN TIS
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS-OUTER LAYER/EPIDERM
.
./
ADIPOSE-CONN STORES ENERGY AS FAT
KERATIN-PROTEIN MAKES SKIN WATERPROOF
MELANIN-FROM MELANOCYTES-PIGMENT-DEEP
EPIDERMIS-OUTER LAYER OF SKIN
DERMIS-DEEPER LAYER OF SKIN
SUBCUT-LAYER OF CONN TIS/FAT/VEINS USED
.
.
AREOLAR"GLUE"GIVES FORM TO ORGANS-CONNE
BONE-SOLID MATRIX-CONNEC-CALCIUM SALTS
CARTILAGE-HARD CONNEC-NO CALCIUM MATRIX
FIBROUS-SF CONNEC-TEN/LIG
SEROUS MEMBRANE-NOT OPEN TO EXTERIOR
SYNOVIAL MEM-SECRETES FLUID TO JOINTS
,
,
CYTOPLASM?STUFF BETN CEL MEM/NUCLEUS
ORGANELLE DIRECTLY W/PHOTOS?RIBOSOMES
DIFFUSION?HIGER CON TO LOW CONCENTRATION
OSMOSIS?LOW TO HIGH SEMIPERM MEMBRANE
FILTRATION?A FORCE PUSHING THRU A MEMBR
ACT TRAN?LOW TO HI USING ENERGY-ATP
.
.
NUCLEUS?REGULATES ACT/BY GEN MAT IT HAS
CELL MEMBRANE?OUTER BOUNDRY OF CELL
CYTOPLASM?CONTAINS MOST OF CELL ORGANELL
IN MITOSIS, CENTRIOLES? FORM THE SPINDLE
IN MITOSIS,MEMBRANE? DISAPPEARS
IN MITOSIS,CHROMOSOMES?LINE UP ON SPINDL
/
/
MOST SUPERIOR CAVITY?--------CRANIAL
DIAPHRAGM SEPARATES?THORACIC/ABDOMINAL
TRANSERVERSE? SUPERIOR-INFERIOR
FRONTAL? ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR
ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR//DORSAL-VENTRAL
SUPPORTING TISSUE? CONNECTIVE
.
.
HOMEOSTASIS?RELATIVELY STABLE/CHANGES
ELECTRON? NEGATIVE CHARGE
PROTON? POSITIVE CHARGE
NEUTRON? NO CHARGE
ION? ELECTRICALLY CHARGED ATOM
ELEMENT? MADE OF 2 LIKE ATOMS
.
.
MOLECULE?BOND OF 2 OR MORE ALIKE ATOMS
COMPOUND? MADE OF 2 UNLIKE ATOMS
COVALENT OR ELECTRON SHARE? 2 OR MORE ELECTRONS SHARE ELECTRONS
IONIC/ELECTRON TRANSFER? LOSS OF ONE OR MORE ELECTRONS BY AN ATOM (OPP ATTRACT)
/
/
ION? ATOM THAT HAS A CHARGE AFTER LOSING OR GAINING ELECTRONS
BLOOD PH? 7.35-7.45
CHROMOSOMES? HEREDITY FOUND HERE
RIBOSOMES? PROTEIN FACTORIES/FLOAT FREE
CENTRIOLES?PR/ORGANEL/NR NUC/CELLDIVISN
/
/
THALAMUS-SENSORY RELAY,EMOTIONS/ALERTING
HYPOTHALAMUS-TEMP,H20,SLEEP,APP,SEX
CEREBELLEM-MUSCLE ACTV,BAL,EQUIL,POS,TON
MEDOBLGA-CONTROLS BP-R-HR
CALCITONIN-THYROID-DEC BLD CALCIUM/
PTH&CALCITON-REG BLOOD CAL LEVEL
.
.
ALDOSTERONE-ADNCORX-INC NA REAB (MINERAL
PROGESTERONE-OVARIES-EST PERID,RLE N PRG
ADH-P/P-WATER REABSORPTION
PTH-INC CAL STIM OSTCLAST
OXYTOCIN-P/P-CONTRACTIONS OF UTERUS
BILIRUBIN-WASTE OF RBC FROM LIVER/SPLEEN
.
.
RED BONE MARROW PRODUCES WBC,RBC,PLATLTS
HEMATOCRIT-PERCENT OF PLASMA IN BLOOD
BACKFLOW OF BLOOD IS PREV BY?MV/TV
NORMAL HB INIATED BY? SA NODE
AV NODE-IN SEPTUM ATRIA/VENTRICLES MEET
BUNDL OF HIS-PART OF COND SYSTEM
.
.
PURKINJE FIBERS-SM BRANCHES IN VEN WALLS
BLD VES,LEFT VEN PUMPS BLD IS THE AORTA
SYSTOLE-CONTRACTION OF THE MYOCARDIUM
DIASTOLE-VENTRICLES RELAX SLV CLS (DUP)
CORONARY ARTERIES O2 BLOOD TO THE HEART
TISS FLUID IS CALLED LYMPH ENTER LYMPCAP
.
.
CHAMBERS OF THE HEART THAT RECEIVE BLOOD FROM VEINS ARE THE? R&L ATRIA

NORMAL HEART SOUNDS BY? CLOSING VALVES

LYMPHATIC VES THAT RETURNS LYMP TO THE LEFT SUBCLAVIAN IS THE LEFT LYMP DUCT
.
.
IN PORTAL CIRCUL,BLOOD FROM DIGES ORGANS
& SPLEEN CIRCULATES THRU THE LIVER B4 RET TO THE HEART

RECOVERY FROM DISEASE-ART PAS ACQ IMM
BABY IMMUNE/MOM- NAT PAS ACQ IMM
.
.
TRACHEA KEPT OPEN BY THE CARTILAGE

INHALATION,THORACIC CAV IS ENLARGED BY CONTRACTION OF THE DIAPHRAGM

O2 IN BLOOD AS OXYHEMOGLOBIN IN RBC
.
.
FOOD PREV TO ENTER TRAC BY THE CLOSURE OF THE EPIGLOTTIS

LUNGS ARE COVERED BY PLEURA-SEROUS MEM

MED OBL STIMULATES RESP BY INCRE CO2 LVL
.
.
MEDIASTINUM-SPACE BETWEEN LUNGS

INTERNAL RESP-EX OF GAS BLD AND CELLS

EJACULARY DUCTS EMPTY INTO URETHRA
.
;
TEVUE
TEST>EPIDI>VASDEF>EJAC>URETHRA

EPIDIDYMUS-SPERM MATURE HERE
VASDEFERNS-PASSAGEWAY FOR SPERM
SCROTUM-SAC THAT HOLDS A TESTE
,
,
URETHRA-CARRIES SPERM TO VAGINA
BARTHOLIN-LUBS VAGINA DURING SEX
MAMMORY GLANDS-SEC ACINI/ALVEOLI/MILK
COWPERS-BELOW PROSTATE,LUBS PENIS
SUDORIFEROUS-COILED TUBES IN TESTES PRODUCE SPERM
.
.
LINING OF UTERUS-ENDOMETRIUM
MYOMETRIUM-MIDDLE SMOOTH MUSCLE OF UTERS
PERINEUM-AREA BETWEEN VAGINA & ANUS

ESTROGEN IS TO PREPARE UTERINE LINING FOR PREGNANCY
,
.
ABNORMAL URINE? ALBUMIN,GLUCOSE,PROTEIN,RBC,WBC,BACTERIA

NORMAL URINE? WATER,SALTS, POT, HYDROGEN, UREA, CREATINE, URIC ACID, AMMONIA, NITROGENOUS WASTE
,
,
KIDNEYS-FILTER FROM THE BLOOD,FLUID BALANCE,ACID-BASE BALANCE,PROD OF ERYTHROPOETIN,INC RBC IN BONE MARROW

OUTER PORTION OF KIDNEY-CORTEX
FUNDUS-ENLARGED POTION TO LEFT & ABOVE ESOPHAGEAL OPENING
.
.
MEDULLA-INNER PORTION OF THE KIDNEY
PYRAMIDS-SHELL SHAPED/OF RENAL MEDULLA
NEPHRONS CONSIST OF GLOMERULI/TUBULES
URGE TO VOID W/350ML OF URINE
FEMALE CATH SHOULD BE INSERTED 4-5 IN
ANGIOPLASTY-SURG REPAIR OF BLD VESSEL
,
.
CARB
SALIVARY AMYLASE (PTYALIN)
PANCREATIC AMYLASE
LACTASE, MALTASE, SUCRASE
GLUCOSE
,
/
PROTEINS
PEPSIN, RENNIN
TRYPSIN
PEPTIDASE
AMINO ACIDS
.
.
FATS
GASTRIC LIPASE, LITTLE EFFECT
PANCREATIC LIPASE (EMULSIFIES FATS)
FATTY ACIDS AND GLYCEROL
.
.
OTHER SECRETIONS
MUCUS
MUCUS, HCL, INTRINSIC FACTOR
NA BICARB (ALKALINE),INSULIN & GLUCAGON
MUCUS,HORMONES THAT CAUSE PAN&GB TO RELEASE SECRETIONS
.
.
BILE
MADE IN LIVER
STORED IN THE GALLBLADDER
GOES INTO THE DUODENUM
EMULSIFIES FATS SO PANCREATIC LIPASE CAN WORK
.
.
CATABOLISM-PRODUCTION OF ENERGY
ANABOLISM-BUILD MORE COMPLEX COMPOUNDS

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
* ALIMENTARY CANAL
*GI TRACT OR GI SYSTEM
.
.
4 FUNCTIONS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1.DIGESTION-BREAKING DOWN MECH/CHEM
2.ABSORPTION-MOVEMENT FROM GI INTO BLOOD
3.METABOLISM-USE OF SIMPLE FOOD SUB/CELL
4.DEFACATION-ELIMINATION OF WASTE
.
.
MAIN ORGANS OF DIGESTIVE
1. MOUTH
2. PHARYNX
3. ESOPHAGUS
4. STOMACH
5. SMALL INTESTINE 6.LG INTESTINE
.
.
ACCESSORY ORGANS OF DIGESTIVE
1. TEETH
2. TONGUE
3. SALIVARY GLANDS
4. LIVER
5. GALLBLADDER 6.PANCREAS 7.APPENDIX
.
.
FSH-STIMULATES FOLLICLES TO MATURE
LH-OVULATION
ESTROGEN-STIMULATES THE ENDOMETRIUM
DECREASES FSH AND INCREASES LH
PROGESTERONE-MAINTAINS ENDOMETRIUM DURING PREGNANCY
.
.
SKIN 16% BODY WEIGHT
SPHENOID-BAT WING BONE BEHIND EYE
HYOID-U SHAPED BONE ATTACHED TO TONGUE
FETAL VERTEBRAE IS CONCAVE
TRONCANTER-ROUND
TUBEROSITY-SQUARE
.
.
SULCUS-GROOVE
MASTOID PROCESS-BULDGE BEHIND EAR
OLECRANON PROCESS-FUNNY BONE
SYMPHYSIS PUBIS-CART BETWEEN 2 PUBIS BON
SYN-NO MOVEMENT
DI-FULL MOVEMENT AM-SLIGHT MOVMENT
.
.
OCULI-WINK
ORIS-PUCKER
BUCINNATOR-WHISLE
MASSETER-CHEW
DENDRITE > CELL BODY >AXON TO CNS
SWAN CELLS PRODUCE MYELIN
.
.
CNS...BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
BRAIN
1.CEREBRUM
2.DIENCEPHALON
3.BRAIN STEM
4.CEREBELLEM
.
.
CEREBRUM
CEREBRAL CORTEX
FRONTAL,TEMPORAL,PARIETAL,OCCIPITAL LOBE
INTERIOR OF THE CEREBRUM
DIENCEPHALON
HYPOTHALAMUS, THALAMUS
BRAINSTEM
MIDBRAIN,PONS,MEDULLA OBLONGATA
CEREBELLEM
.
.
OPTIC-VISION
OCULOMOTOR-PUPIL SIZE
TROCHLEAR-FOLLOW EYE MOVEMENT
ABDUCENS-LATERAL EYE MOVEMENT
OLFACTORY-SMELL
ACOUSTIC-HEARING AND BALANCE
.
.
TRIGEMINAL-FACIAL SENSATIONS/CHEWING
HYPOGLOSSAL-TONGUE MOVEMENT
GLOSSOPHARNGEAL-TASTE/SWALLOW
FACIAL-TASTE/EXPRESSION/TIP OF TONGUE
ACCESSORY-HEAD/SHOULDER MOVEMENT
VAGUS-VOICE,HR,SWALLOW,PERI,
.
.
CSF PRODUCED BY CHROID PLEXUS IN LAT VEN
LAT VEN TO 3RD VEN THRU AQOF SLYVIS
INTO THE 4TH VEN INTO THE SUBARACHNOID
CSF GOES DOWN & AROUND SPINAL CORD UP AROUND BRAIN, RETURNS TO BLOOD IN DURA SPACE THRU ANARACOID VILLI, REABSORB
.
.
PATHWAY FOR VISION
1.CONJUNTIVA
2.CORNEA
3.AQUEOUS HUMOR
4.PUPIL
5.LENS 6.VITREOUS HUMOR 7.RETINA 8.OPTIC NERVE 9.BRAIN (OCCIPITAL)
,
,
SOUND
1.PINNA
2.EXT AUDITORY CANAL
3.TYPANIC MEMBRANE
4.MALLEOUS 5.INCUS 6.STAPES
7.OVAL WINDOW 8,PERILYMPH 9.MEM LABYRINH
10.ENDOLYMPH 11.ORGAN OF CORTI 12.ACOUSTIC NERVE 13.BRAIN (TEMPORAL)
.
.
CALCIUM 9-11
GLUCOSE 80-120
BLOOD 7.35-7.45
BLOOD 4-6 L, 8-12PT, 16-24 CUPS
BLOOD 7-9 PERCENT OF BODY WEIGHT
.
.
BLOOD 91 PERCENT WATER
BLOOD 7 PERCENT PROTEINS...
BLOOD 2 PERCENT OTHER...WASTE
BLOOD 55 PERCENT PLASMA
BLOOD 45 PERCENT FORMED ELEMENTS RBMARR
RBC'S 4.5-5.5 MILLION
,.
,
NORMAL RBC 4.5-5.5 MILLION,120D
NORMAL HEMOGLOBIN 12-18
HEMATOCRIT 45%
WBC'S 5000-10000
.
.
BLEEDING
PLATELETS GATHER
FORM A PLUG, DECREASE BLOOD LOSS
RELEASE SERATONIN,BLOOD VESSEL CONSTRICT
DECREASE BLOOD LOSS,RELEASE OF THROMBOPLASTIN,BLOOD CLOTS,PROTHROMBIN
CHANGES TO THROMBIN,CAUSES FIBROGEN TO FIBRIN WHICH FORMS A CLOT,STOPS 2-6 MIN
.
.
INJURED TISSUE, HISTAMINE IS RELEASED
BLOOD VESSELS DILATE, LEAK FLUID, SWELLS, PAIN RECEPTORS ARE ACTIVATED
PHAGOCYTES ARE TO THE AREA 1ST NEUTROPHILS, 2ND MONOCYTES (LATER)IF THIS RESPONSE DOES NOT CONTROL AND KILL PATHOGENS THE IMMUNE RESPONSE OCCURS
.
.
TYPE O-UNIVERSAL DONOR
AB- UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT
ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM HEART
VEINS CARRY BLOOD TO THE HEART
.
.
FROM THE BODY
SUPERIOR & INF VENA CAVA
RIGHT ATRIUM, TRICUSPID VALVE, RIGHT VEN
PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE, PULMONARY ARTERY, LUNGS......FROM THE LUNGS TO THE PULMONARY VEIN, LEFT ATRIUM, MITRAL VALVE, LEFT VENT, AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE, AORTA, TO THE BODY
.
.
RENAL ARTERY
ARTERIOLES
AFFERENT ARTERIOLE
GLOMERULUS BOWMANS CAPSULE
EFFERENT ARTERIOLE
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES
VENULES
RENAL VEIN
.
.
POTASSIUM 3.5-5.3
NA 135-145
CL 100-108
CA 9-11
K AND NA LEVELS..ALDOSTERONE,ANH
.
.
.
MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, CARDIAC SPHINCTER, STOMACH, PYLORIC SPHINTER, DUODENUM, JEJUNUM, ILLEUM, ILLECOCECAL VALVE, CECUM, ASCENDING COLON, HEPATIC FLEXURE, TRANSVERSE COLON, SPLENIC FLEXURE, DESCENDING COLON, SIGMOID COLON, RECTUM, INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER, ANAL CANAL, EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER
.
.