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27 Cards in this Set

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there were some important differences
between the national survey respondents and the in-depth interviewees. What was the primary difference?
The largest
difference is that the in-depth interviewees seemed much less clear overall about
how they should act in their romantic/sexual relationships than the national survey
respondents, and the former were moderately less religious and less traditional in
some of their attitudes (though no less interested in marriage)
Marriage IS/IS NOT a major life goal for the majority of today’s college
women, and most would like to meet a spouse while at college
Marriage IS a major life goal for the majority of today’s college
women, and most would like to meet a spouse while at college

Eightythree
percent of respondents in the national survey agreed that “Being married
is a very important goal for me,” and 63 percent agreed that “I would
like to meet my future husband in college.” Contrary to what we might
think, today’s college women have high marital aspirations and many are
actively thinking about marriage.
there are important aspects of the college social scene that
appear to undermine the likelihood of achieving the goal of a successful
future marriage. Discuss.
For example, since 1980, women have outnumbered
men attending college. In 1997, the sex ratio on-campuses nationally
was only 79 men for every 100 women.
In addition, relationships between college women and men
today are often characterized by either too little commitment or too
much,meaning...
women with few opportunities to explore the marriage worthiness
of a variety of men before settling into a long-term commitment with
one of them.
Hooking up,” a distinctive sex-without-commitment interaction
between college women and men, is ________ on-campuses and
profoundly influences campus culture. Do many students engage in it?
Hooking up,” a distinctive sex-without-commitment interaction
between college women and men, is widespread on-campuses and
profoundly influences campus culture, although a minority of students
engage in it
If a couple "hooked up," what does this mean?
To say “we hooked up” could mean a couple kissed, or had sex,
or had oral sex, but no one will know for sure.
Dating” carries multiple meanings for today’s college women. What are the four widely used meanings of the term?
A college couple who is “dating” is sometimes
in a fast-moving, highly committed relationship that includes sexual activity,
sleeping at one another’s dorm most nights, studying together, sharing
meals, and more, but rarely going out on “dates.” These fast-moving commitments
and hooking up operate as two sides of the same coin. At the
same time, “dating” is also often synonymous with “hanging out,” in which
women and men spend loosely organized, undefined time together, without
making their interest in one another explicit, unless they hook up, at which
point dating and hooking up become the same thing.
Do College women say it is rare or common for college men to ask them on
dates, or to acknowledge when they have become a couple?
It is rare.Only 50
percent of college women seniors reported having been asked on six or
more dates by men since coming to college, and a third of women surveyed
said they had been asked on two dates or fewer. Young women and men
more often “hang out” rather than go on planned dates, and if they live in
a coed dorm, their dorm is where they most often meet members of the
opposite sex. They report that because they can hang out or hook up with
a guy over a period of time and still not know if they are a couple, women
often initiate “the talk” in which they ask, “Are we committed or not?” When
she asks, he decides.
Do College women from divorced families differ significantly from
women who grew up in intact families regarding marriage aspirations,
getting advice from parents, and hooking up?
Yes. Women from
divorced families appeared more eager to marry, and wanted to marry sooner,
but were less likely to believe that their future marriages would last. They
were also less likely to report that they were raised with firm expectations
about relationships with men, and less likely to report that their parents had
told them to save sex for marriage. They were more likely to have hooked
up, and if they did hook up, were more likely to have done so often — of
women who had hooked up at least once, 37 percent of college women
whose parents had divorced reported hooking up more than six times, compared
with 23 percent of women from intact families.
Are there any widely recognized social norms on college campuses
that help guide and support young women in thinking about
sex, love, commitment, and marriage?
No.College women say they want to
be married someday, and many would like to meet a future husband at college.
Yet it seems that virtually no one even attempts to help them consider
how their present social experience might or might not lead to a successful
marriage, or how marriage might fit with other life goals.
There are few widely recognized social norms on college campuses
that help guide and support young women in thinking about
sex, love, commitment, and marriage

As a result, the culture of courtship, a set of social norms and
expectations that once helped young people find the pathway to marriage,
has largely become a hook up culture with almost no shared
norms or expectations. Describe.
. Hooking up, hanging out, and fast-moving
(“joined at the hip”) commitments are logical, though we believe seriously
flawed, responses to this disappearance of a culture of courtship. The
options available to college women are obviously strongly influenced by
choices that other young men and women make, but each young woman
today tends to see her choices as wholly private and individual. For example,
while most college women expect to marry for life and 88 percent
would not personally consider having a child outside of marriage, 87 percent
agree that “I should not judge anyone’s sexual conduct except my
own.” Consequently, when women are hurt or disappointed by the hook up
culture, they typically blame themselves.
The lack of adult involvement, guidance, and even knowledge
regarding how young people are dating and mating today is unprecedented
and problematic. How do the authors propose that we fix the situation.
1. Recognize that older adults, including parents, college administrators,
and other social leaders, should have important roles in guiding
the courting and mating practices of the young. The virtual disappearance
of adult participation in, or even awareness of, how today’s young
people find and marry one another should be seen as a major social problem,
and should end.
2. Recognize that college women typically do not yearn for a series
of “close relationships,” but instead the majority seek long-term commitment
and marriage.
3. There appears to have been a reduction in male initiative in dating
on college campuses. Recognize that the burden of dating and
mating should not fall on women alone, and that there is a need for
greater male initiative.
4. Support the creation of socially prescribed rules and norms that
are relevant to and appropriate for this generation, and that can
guide young people with much more sensitivity and support toward
the marriages they seek. When it comes to inherently social acts such as
romance and marriage, social rules do more than restrict individual choice,
they also facilitate it. The absence of appropriately updated social norms, rituals,
and relationship milestones leaves many young women confused, and
often disempowered, in their relationships with men. Socially defined
courtship is an important pathway to more successful marriages.
Since none of the 62 women interviewed in the qualitative portion of the study
were enrolled in church-related institutions or in nonelite state-supported colleges,
it is not surprising that these women were, on average, less..
religious than the
women in the national sample and less traditional in some of their attitudes
The largest and probably most important
difference is that 78 percent of the national sample but only 37 percent of the qualitative
study subjects “strongly agreed” with what statement?
“I have a clear sense of
what I should do in my romantic/sexual interactions”— an indication of greater
confusion among women in the women participating in the qual study (ie, those from elite, non-relig institutions).
What do the authors list as important changes affecting the mating behavior of college women?
1. MORE PEOPLE ARE GETTING DIVORCED: These
changes have meant that college women today are less willing to rely on marriage
for economic security, and have affected their attitudes about marriage and relationships
in other ways as well.
2. SEX REVOLUTION has occured, in which sexual relations between unmarried men and women
became much more socially acceptable.
3.the
demise of in loco
parentis, a policy
through which colleges
and universities
assumed some
of the responsibility
for college students
that parents could
no longer directly
exercise, went hand
in hand with the
sexual revolution.
The most noticeable
features of in loco parentis included separate dorms for women and men,
sometimes on opposite sides of the campus, and rules and curfews for women that
were stricter than those for men.
4.One of the most important changes related to mating and dating on college
campuses has been a substantial increase in the past quarter of a century in the
average age at first marriage.
IN SUM:
The overall context in which young women attend college today is one in which
prospects for meeting suitable mates are not especially good, at least relative to the
past, and one in which preparation for one’s future career is a pre-eminent goal,
one in which sexual norms are permissive, and one in which there is little encouragement
for contemplating marriage in the foreseeable future. Under such circumstances,
one might expect male-female relationships to be oriented toward friendship
and fun, and only incidentally toward marriage
Discuss the disparity in the sexual standards that women apply to themselves as compared to the standards that they apply to others.
Thirty-nine percent of the respondents to our national survey said they had never
had sexual intercourse, and more surprising, almost a third (31 percent) of the senior
women said they were virgins. The nonvirgins were not necessarily very sexually
active; more than a third of them (36 percent) said they had not had sexual intercourse
in the past month. Yet, while the sexual standards that many of these women
apply to themselves tend to be fairly restrictive, the standards that they apply to others
are more permissive. Eighty-seven percent of respondents agreed (59 per
Describe the phenomenon of "hooking up".
On most campuses today there is a widely recognized practice, usually called
“hooking up,” that explicitly allows sexual interaction without commitment or even
affection. Indeed, despite the fairly restrictive personal sexual standards of a majority
of college women, one of the most well-defined forms of male-female interaction
on campus today, shaped by relatively clear and widely shared rules and
expectations, is hooking up. Hook ups usually occur between persons who do not
know one another well, with little if any expectation that either person will follow
through and try to continue the relationship. Hook ups can occur between two
people on just one occasion, or they can occur more than once between the same
two people over a period of weeks or months. The most common definition we
heard was that a hook up is anything “ranging from kissing to having sex,” and that
it takes place outside the context of commitment.
Was there any difference in how whites and blacks thought of "hooking up?"
We did find a noticeable difference in how whites and Blacks define hook up.
Among whites, hook up almost always had a clear sexual connotation. Yet, in our
interviews at Howard University, an historically Black institution, the African
American students we interviewed usually said that hook up implies meeting up
with someone, or perhaps going out on a date with someone
A NOTABLE FEATURE of hook ups is that they almost always occur when both
participants....
are drinking or drunk.
When the national survey respondents who
had experienced at least one hook up were asked to select from a list of adjectives,
or to supply adjectives of their own, to indicate how they felt a day or so after a
hook up, a majority selected:
a)pos adj
b)neg adj
c) both pos & neg
both pos and neg
Interestingly, when women felt hurt or had regrets after a hook up, the dominant
theme was one of...
taking full responsibility for their actions and blaming themselves.
These women often commented that they were highly “emotional” or “sensitive” people
(as if emotions and senses are not part of sexual activity for most women) and
therefore should have “known better” than to get involved in a hook up.
Although it was somewhat more rare, in the on-campus interviews women did also
report having what types of feelings about hooking up.
positive
In
our on-campus interviews women named a number of reasons why they, or
women they observed, hooked up. What were the 3 dominant themes that emerged?
1.One major
theme was that hooking up is a way to avoid the hurt and rejection that can come
from talking openly about feelings.
2.The second major theme is that hooking up is a way to avoid getting into a relationship
that could be time consuming
3.Perhaps the most surprising theme to emerge is that some women who hooked
up were trying to avoid the pain of breaking up by avoiding commitment in the
first place.
One alternative word for hook-up partner is friend. What do the authors find unique about this?
What is most ironic in this instance is that some students are using the word
“friend” to describe a connection to another person that requires even less commitment
than real friends would expect of each other. These “friendships” seem to
demand nothing of the participants, other than a ready willingness to have sex
when their partner requests.
*There were some important differences
between the national survey respondents and the in-depth interviewees. The largest
difference is that
the in-depth interviewees seemed much less clear overall about
how they should act in their romantic/sexual relationships than the national survey
respondents, and the former were moderately less religious and less traditional in
some of their attitudes (though no less interested in marriage).
Where were the original interviews conducted?
elite, nonreligious
institutions
Percentage of people who indicated that they have "hooked up."
40%