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36 Cards in this Set

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two broad categories of support
clarification support

proof support
cloarification support
used to prevent confusion or misunderstanding in our message
effective way to provide clarification is...
the use of definitions, examples, or additional information
proof support
adds crdibility

show something is trrue

proves or supports a point
three guidelines for using support material
support should be appropriate

support should be accurate

give credit where credit is due
all guidelines to effective support
know what you want to accomplish (clarify or prove)

qualify your sources

intergrate your sources

use relevant support

use appropriate support

use accurate support

give credit where credit is due
5 types of support
definitions
examples
comparisons
testimony
statistics
definition
primarily used for clarification support because the explain, or clarify terms, jargon, acronyms, or concepts
examples
used for both clarification and proof support
2 types of examples
real life

imaginary (jokes or parables)
comparisons
most frequently used to clarify relationships
types of comparisons
metaphor

contrast

simile
metaphor
figure of speech used to compare two things

compares something concrete to something abstract

joe is a fast burner
contrast
most used comparison in military writing

contrast old vs new or advantages vs disadvantages
simile
jsut like the metaphor only less direct

uses like or as
two common types of proof support
testimony

statistics
testimony
information we take from experts or expert documentation to support our communication
3 methods for using testimony
direct quotation

quotation with omissions

paraphrase
direct quotation
quote someone word for word without omissions
quotation with omissions
we quote only part of what someone has said or written
paraphrase
borrowing information from someone else and putting it in your own words
three rules for using testimony
1 remember the general guidelines for support material

2 keep your testimony as brief as possible

3 use your testimony in context don't bend it to make it say what you'd like it to say
3 types of statistical support
ratios

percentages

raw numbers
ratios
a numerical comparison of two or more things
percentages
a figure that reflects a portion of something when compared to the whole

example: in a typical SNCO academy class of 360 only 5% are reservists
raw numbers
numbers that haven't been cooked yet we take them as they are--they haven't been manipulated
rules for using statistics
round off

use sparingly

dramatize

recency

context
2 most common reasoning fallacies
slanted reasoning

emotional appeals
slanted reasoning
arises from the misuse or lack of data
types of slanted rasoning
hasty generalization

faulty dilemma: offers two alternatives, one the communicator wants us to accept and one that he knows we will question or never accept

faulty analogy: based on the assumption that what is true of a simple or familiar situation is also true of a complex or complicated one

stacking the evidence: consists of distorting or omitting imprtant evidence to get a point across

the loaded question: When are we going to stop sinking money into this expensive program?
emothional appeals
name calling

glittering generality

smob or prestige appeal

plain folks appeal

bandwagon appeal
name calling
the habit of giving undesirable names to things or people you dislike
glittering generality
giving an admirable name to something that we want others to accept
snob or prestige appeal
attempt to have us seek an ever higher social status
plain folks appeal
opposite of the snob appeal

status is looked upon with contempt

the simple things in life are worth having
bandwagon appeal
it asks receivers to accept an idea without examination and to believe it because their working group or social group believes it