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74 Cards in this Set

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What is autonomy?
refers to the right (of client and helper) to make choices and take actions, provided the results do not adversely affect others.
What is beneficence?
- the intent "to do good" by helping and promoting growth in others.
What is the definition of Nonmaleficence?
- "above all, do no harm".
What is the definition of justice in counseling?
(often referred to as social justice) - fairness or ensuring equality of opportunities and resources for all people.
What is the definiton of fidelity?
- keeping promises and being trustworthy in relationships with others.
What is veracity?
- telling the truth.
What are the counseling principles of ethics?
-Autonomy
-Beneficence
-Nonmaleficence
-Justice
-Fidelity
-Veracity
What are some exceptions to confidentiality?
Exceptions include:
supervision
intent to harm
child abuse
What is the jist of confidentiality?
not divulging information shared in helping session is fundamental.
What is super important about recognizing your limits?
Recognize your limits (note qualifications).
-Work within competency/experience
-Use appropriate title
-Consult with supervisor
-Be aware of own issues
What is important to know about educating your clients about the counseling process?
Educate clients about helping process:
-Nature of process, what happens (confidentiality limits)
-Possible outcomes of helping
-Roles and relationships with clients
What should the focus of all sessions be about?
Focus on the needs of the client
Not helper’s needs (e.g., relationship should benefit client, not be used to meet helper’s needs)
What does avoiding harmful dual relationships mean?
Avoid harmful dual relationships:
-Be aware of competing responsibilities
-Power differentials (e.g., implications of self-disclosure)
-Don’t “work” with friends or family
-Don’t have sex with clients (or supervisees/supervisors)
What does develop appropriate boundaries mean?
Develop Appropriate Boundaries:
-Structure (length, fees, policies, etc.)
-Interpersonal nature of interaction (no sexual intimacies, friendships, business relationships with clients) setting limits (phone number, etc.)
-With peers: stay within comfort levels, consider impact of continuing work together, different roles of peer vs friend vs client/counselor
-With faculty/supervisor: consider impact of evaluation, grading, power differential
What does beware of your values mean?
Be aware of your values:
-Our values and beliefs influence clients
-Work to understand your biases
-Be aware of our subtle influence, what we are interested in, comfortable for us, vs what is most facilitative for client to focus on
-Even Rogers differentially reinforced certain client responses while not reinforcing others
What does beware of culture mean?
Be aware of culture: (Multicultural guidelines)
-Don’t neglect OR attach too much significance to culture
-Traditional forms of helping may work, but may not (e.g., eye contact)
-Become familiar with research on culture, awareness of multiple cultural identities and which are most relevant at which times
-Avoid acting primarily on stereotypes (positive or negative), learn from your client how culture influences him/her
-Think about your biases as well as client’s
-Commit to eliminate bias and discrimination
What is important to remember about keeping yourself healthy as a counselor?
-Act in a virtuous manner (strive to be a person of positive moral character)
-Take care of yourself to ensure that you can care for others (keep/develop a “life” outside of graduate school and helping)
-Seek counseling for self if/when need support/help
What are the ABC's of an ethical dilemma?
A-ssessment
B-enefit
C-onsequences
D-uty
E-ducation
What does Benefit mean (ABCs in ethics)?
to the client, the relationship, and significant others.
What does Assessment mean (ABCs in ethics)?
- identify the situation, the client's status and resources, and the helper's values, feelings and reactions to the situation. Also what laws or rules might apply.
What does Consequences mean (ABCs in ethics)?
Consequences and consultation - consider ethical, legal, emotional, and therapeutic consequences, consult with supervisor.
What does Duty mean (ABCs in ethics)?
- consider to whom a duty exists.
What does Education mean (ABCs in ethics)?
- review education (notes, etc) regarding appropriate actions to take.
What does Organismic Valuing Process (OVP) lead to?
Self actualization.
What happens when people experience too many COW?
-Too many COW can lead to incongruence (neg. self-image, inauthenticity, etc.)
-Can’t experience, recognize feelings as belonging to self
-Can be function of socialization process (gender or otherwise)
What happens when incongruence exists between Conditions of worth(COW) and Organismic Value Processing (OVP)
When incongruence exist, we defend ourselves.
What is Perceptual distortion?
- altering or misinterpreting experiences
What is denial?
- block incongruent experiences from awareness, minimizes threats to sense of self
Some level of defenses is necessary, but what happens when you're too defensive?
-Subjective reality incongruent with external reality
-Become rigid in perceptions where defenses are strong to protect from reality
-Real self can become incongruent with ideal self (who one is vs who one wishes to be)
What has to happen in order for reintegration to occur?
-Reduce COW
-Increase positive self-regard
-Reintegration through allowing experiences to occur and accurately perceive events. Assisted by unconditional positive regard (UCPR).
What are Rogers' 6 Conditions?
-Client & helper in psych contact
-Client in state of incongruence
-Helper is congruent (genuine) in relationship
-Helper feels UCPR for client
-Helper experiences empathy for client (different from sympathy)
-Client experiences helper’s congruence, UCPR, empathy
What is Empirical Status?
-Evidence for importance of facilitative conditions (emathy, UCPR, genuineness, acceptance).
-Working alliance appears to have supplanted some of the importance of therapist only behaviors (also including goals, objectives, tasks).
What does establishing rapport entail?
Establishing rapport-developing therapeutic relationship
What is empathy?
understanding another person and feeling "as if" you are the other person (perspective taking)
What is the definition of unconditional positive regard?
accepting and appreciating another person without judgment
What is the definition of genuineness?
(congruence) being open to own experiences and being genuinely available to clients
What are the most important goal in a counseling setting?
-Est. rapport & trusting relationship; attending, listening, & observing, helping explore thoughts, facilitate expression of emotion, learn about clients
-Helping clients tell their stories
-Tapping into emotions and facilitating emotional arousal.
-May have learned to suppress feelings, distort or deny.
-Details not as important as experiencing feelings.
-Feelings in the present, here and now. Even difficult ones.
-Emotional arousal necessary to motivate change.
-Schema
-Learning about clients - help each individual by attending to that individual's unique style and needs.
-Follow lead of client
-Begin conceptualizing client’s problems to help during insight & action stages
-There are no absolute “right” interventions.
What is the definiton of attending?
orienting yourself physically toward the client, show you are paying attention and you are interested
What is the definition of listening in counseling?
capturing and understanding the messages that clients communicate, either verbally or nonverbally, clearly or vaguely. Try to understand client’s thinking and feeling.
What is the definition of observing?
picking up on behavioral cues from client (much of it nonverbal)
What are some things to remember about cultural issues in counseling?
Cultural rules for nonverbal communication:
-Often outside of awareness
-Develop through socialization (modeling)
-Vary by culture (e.g., Asia – humble, America – self praise)
-Personal space differences, touching
-Fit style to client, not client fit to you
True or false, One may communicate more “true” emotions through nonverbal than verbal behaviors?
True.
What are emblems?
substitute body movement for words (e.g., waving
What are illustrators?
movement accompanying speech (using hands to show something)
What are regulators?
monitor conversation flow (head nods, postural shifts)
What are adaptors?
habits, outside of awareness, no communicative purpose (head scratch, etc.) – avoid using as helper
What does ENCOURAGES stand for?
E-ye contact
N-ods (head)
C-ultural differences
O-pen stance (or sit-ance)
U-m-hmm
R-elax
A-void distracting nonverbals
G-rammatical style (match client)
E-ar (listen with third)
S-pace (use appropriately)
What is important to remember about eye contact?
Good (28%-70% common), but don’t stare. Varies by culture, e.g., Euro-Am middle class maintain eye contact when listening, look away when speaking, African American the opposite, sign of disrespect for some American Indian cultures, some cultures avoid eye contact for serious subjects. Helpers use nonintrusive eye contact, aware of norms
What is important to remember about facial expressions?
fairly consistent across cultures (Ekman), but manner and depth of emotional displays will vary, e.g., Westerners pretty emotional, Asians OK with sympathy, respect, and shame, but less so with self-aggrandizing or negative emotions. Smiling by and large good, if done appropriately and not “too much”.
What's important to know about head nods?
can communicate understanding, following client. Can also be distracting (don’t be a bobblehead).
What is important to know about body posture?
forward lean = paying attention, open posture, don’t be rigid. Slouching with legs apart can seem like sexual advance.
What is important to know about bodily movements?
can allow for nonverbal or emotional “leakage.” Legs & feet less voluntarily inhibited, followed by hands & face.
What is important to know about space?
Use of space – proxemics. Closer for more intimate, more distance for less intimacy. Each person has own comfort zones (often out of awareness). Varies by culture. Don’t make cultural assumptions about space, much intra-culture variability.
What is important to know about culture and non verbal communication?
Each culture develops rules for nonverbal communication, which are often outside of conscious awareness.
True or false, noncompliance to implicit rules about non verbal communications does not result in feeling uncomfortable?
False. Noncompliance does result in discomfort.
Why is tone of voice important?
Tone of voice – slow vs fast, soft vs loud, consider what communicates what to clients. Vary own tone/speed based on relationship (can match client pattern, or differ to achieve affect).
What are you supposed to do about grammer in sessions?
Match client’s grammatical style and pace, but don’t fake a style you’re not familiar with or doesn’t fit.
What is beneficial about periods of silence in session?
can be used at different times for different effects. Often good to use brief silences following client statement to allow for client’s and own reflections.
-Can communicate empathy, warmth, or challenge. If alliance isn’t strong, can be frightening to clients.
-Track effect of silence on client, adjust for them, not for self.
What are minimal encouragers?
- can keep client talking, acknowledge client statements, show attentiveness and support, monitor flow of conversation. (Similar to head nods). Can be over done or underdone.
When does Clara say to use minimal encouragers in session?
Clara says to use mostly at end of client statements to encourage clients to keep talking, but don’t interrupt
What is approval/reassurance?
used judiciously and sparingly, can encourage and facilitate exploration of thoughts, feelings, experiences. Can appropriately normalize client experience.
What verbal behaviors should you avoid in session?
Avoid diminishing feelings, denying experiences, stopping exploration, or providing moral judgment.
What are interruptions and what effect do they have on clients?
Interruptions – can disrupt client thinking and feeling, as well as reflection. Stop exploration.
When is it okay to interrupt a client?
Can use when client is stuck, rambling or talking nonstop, but not productively exploring.
What is important to know about note taking in session?
usually best not to do it in the session (can be used, somewhat, during intakes or assessments).
What is important to know about touch in session?
multiple meanings, varies by culture. Other than handshake, probably best for beginners to avoid.
Why is it important to RELAX in session, and how do you do this?
-First and formost -relax & be natural
-Avoid distracting nonverbal behaviors. Attend to client and vary behavior according to intentions and client reactions.
-If anxious, bored, attracted, etc., reflect on it and process it rather than letting emotions “leak out.”
-Dress one notch up from client, avoid seductive clothing.
-If internal dialogue is distracting (self-focus), try to refocus on to client. Reflect-on-process later. Watch videos of self to see impact.
What are verbal messages?
– listen carefully, try to understand, don’t be formulating next response. Try to understand client’s world and verbal styles rather than project yours on to them.
What are nonverbals?
watch for congruence between verbal and nonverbal. No “rules,” attend to context. Can have multiple meanings. Use to general hypotheses.
True or false, In terms of cultural differences, DO assume your interpretation of nonverbal messages is correct?
FALSE, do not assume that you are correct or know about the client.
Who appears to be slightly more accurate at detecting emotions in others, men or women?
Women appear to be slightly better at detecting emotions in others (about 2-3% more accurate).
True or false, counselors are not necessarily better at detecting emotions in others?
True, they're not.
What can attending, listening, and observing do for a client?
Attending, listening, observation can encourage exploration, help us understand client, move process along
What does inadequate listening lead to?
-Inadequate attending and listening
-Can frustrate, distract client/process
-Distracted by internal thoughts & feelings
-Not sensitive to cultural nonverbals/verbals
-Being unnatural in nonverbal positions