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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the 5 stages of change
-precontemplation (no intent of change w/in 6 mos)
-contemplation (plan for change w/in 6 mos)
-preparation (plan for action w/in 30 days, some steps)
-action (changed overt behaviors, less than 6 mos)
-maintenance (change overt behavior, more than 6 mos)
What is "decisional balance"?
weighing pros and cons of changing
What are the 2 parts of self efficacy?
1. Confidence that one is able to take action
2. Temptation to resort back to old habits
Describe aspects of emotional intelligence
-recognizing your feelings
-managing your feelings
-motivating yourself
-managing impulses
-recognizing and managing the emotions of others
Differentiate emotions driven by the limbic system vs driven by cognitive processes
Car cuts you off, you feel...

-Limbic: unsafe! Don't die!

-Cognitive: what a jerk!
Describe 5 self-defeating emotional schemas
-abandonment: fear people will leave us
-deprivation: fear needs will not be met
-subjugation: always YOUR way, never mine
-unlovability: I am unlovable and flawed
Describe 5 more self-defeating emotional schemas
-exclusion: I don't belong
-vulnerability: loss of control, abused
-failure: fail in face of obvious success
-perfection: unrelenting standards for behavior
-entitlement: rules don't apply to me
What are two questions to consider in motivating yourself?
-How am I feeling?
-What do I think about what I feel?
What are three questions to consider for EQ?
-How do we recognize the emotions of others?
-What is empathy?
-How do you influence the emotions of others?
What are 6 strategies for dealing with sensitive topics?
-Create a sense of safety
-make space for each person to speak
-normalize the process
-encourage self-generated knowledge
-name the problem
-keep hope alive
What emotive words suggest...


What emotive words suggest...
guilt--should have

determination--I WILL
What emotive words suggest...
What emotive words suggest a match or mismatch of emotion?
match: satisfaction, connected

mismatch: dissatisfaction, lonliness
What emotive words suggest...
...emotional strength?
low: concerned, curious

mod: anxious, fascinated

high: hysterical, obsessed
What emotive words suggest...
active of personal control in emotion?
passive: hopeful, lethargic, hurt

active: determined, ambitious
What is described as "a fundamental aspect of any disability which requires rehabilitation?"
What is the relationship between pt's rx to loss and course of direction in rehab?
-grief is important factor
-clinician needs to be informed of loss/grief of pt
-pt may be unable to accept the disorder
-interrupting grieving may reduce progress
What are some effective counseling strategies and techniques?
-selective questioning
-paraphrasing & summarizing
-reflection of feelings
-let them tell their story
What are some Rogerian concepts concerning loss and grief?
-help client to get clarity
-unconditional positive regard
-transparency, congruence
-want client to assume responsibility for change
-acceptance of client
What are the 5 stages of grief as described by Kubler-Ross?
1. Denial: vacillate hold on/ let go. "I can fix it"
2. Anger: blame self, Dr, person they lost, God
3. Bargaining: w/God usually
4. Depression: ego-based response, question self-competency
5. Acceptance: clinician help by normalizing process and reframing situation
What are Gould's 3 Illusions of life?
1. Control: feel strongly in first 30+ years
2. Life is (not) fair: observe parent expectation gap
3. Prevention of problem vs Repair the damage
What are Scheider's 5 dimensions of loss?
1. of a significant person (death, divorce, departure)
2. of aspect of self (accident, disease, stroke)
3. of external objects (nat. disaster, loss of culture/religion, of productivity)
4. developmental loss (gradual loss thru growth and aging)
5. of predictability of usual (birth of child, new job, dx)
What are some questions to consider regarding emotions and counseling?
-What is important to you when you are experiencing this emotion?
-What would you lose if you weren't experiencing this emotion?
-What does this emo. response give you?
-What important thing is NOT happening when you ex. this emo.?
-What do you think is at the bottom of this emo.?
How can knowing variables like tempo, involvement, intensity, modality, time frame, and comparisons help us in our counseling?
-understand how motivated/ overwhelmed/ confused pts are by their problem
-know how to match emos and to help them
-help calm frustration
What are the 3 Psychodynamic theories?
-individual psychology
Describe the Psychoanalytic theory
-unconscious factors motivate behavior
-first 6 years influence whole life (personality development)
-id, ego, superego, unconscious motivation, insight
Describe Ego Psychology / Ego Analysis
-Psychosexual stages, transference, diagnosis and interpretation
Describe Attachment Theory
-Bolby, Ainsworth
-4 patterns: secure, anxious/avoidant, disordered, disorganized/disoriented
-stems from object relations theory
Describe object relations theory, as references in Attachment theory
-relationship to persons, activities, things that function as sources of libidinal/attachment gratification
-ie teddybear = comfort object
-grat. may occur directly or thru sublimation or psychic energy
Describe Individual Psychology
-humans governed by a conscious drive to express and fulfill themselves
-motivated by social, not biological, factors
-goals: est. and maintain good relationships, uncover dynamic of client, interpretation culminating in insight, reorientation
-concepts: strive for superiority, complexes, compensations, social interest
What are some Cognitive Behavioral Theories (CBTs)?
-Behaviorism (Skinner)
-Cognitive Therapy (Beck)
-Rational Emotive Therapy (Ellis)
-Reality Therapy (Glasser)
-Self-directive process (Meichenbaum)
Describe traits of Cognitive-Behavioral theories and therapies
-ABA, assertiveness training, aversive techniques, behavior modification, biofeedback, behavioral assessments, functional analysis
-symptoms of observable behaviors
-behavior is conditioned by consequences
-extinguish behaviors by removing reinforcers
-"token economy"
Describe Existentialism
-Heidegger, Keirkegard, Satre (stoic philosophers like Socrates)
-emphasis on subjective inner feelings, actively purposeful nature of humans
-explore/develop meaning in life
-individual experience, quest for identity
-conflicts between death, freedom, isolation, meaninglessness
Describe Existential-Humanistic theories
-May, Frankl, Rogers, Pearls, Maslow, Yalom, Milton Erikson
-emphasizes rx of whole person
-subjective experiences, free will, decide life-course, self-actualization
Describe the different styles of Existential-Humanistic therapies, main people
Rollo May: Existential counseling, empathy
Frankl: Logotherapy
Rogers: Person-centered therapy
Pearls: Gestalt therapy
Maslow: Hierarchy of needs
Yalom: 11 interdependent curative factors in group process
Milton Erickson: Humanistic, ego-supportive
What are Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
Self Esteem
Physiological Needs
What are 3 developmental schemas according to Adler?
-inferiority complex
Describe Family Systems and Therapy
-Bowen, Minuchin, Satir
-family system, multigenerational, intergenerational issues, family development life cycle, process therapy
-family is source of problem, usually one identified pt
-4 types of therapy: psychodynamic, multigenerational, structural, communication
Describe Multicultural Counseling Theory (MCT)
-Sue & Sue, Ivey & Ivey
-multiculturalism, white racial ID, people of color racial ID
-Bias, prejudice, ethocentrism, stereotype
-awareness of own biases/beliefs, knowledge about own biases/ culture, acquisition of mult.cult. skills
Describe Psychodymanic family theories, from the Family Systems model
-etiology of family probs
-influence of family of origin on current probs
-type and quality of earlier relationship of each parent affect quality of current nuclear family
Describe Multigenerational family theories, from the Family Systems model
-major goal to develop differentiation or independence among fam. members
-focus on balance btwn differentiation and fusion (fusion leads to triangulation, 2 against 1)
Describe Structural family theories, from the Family Systems model
-faulty communication patterns contribute to dysfunction
-focus on maintaining balance /homeostasis in family
-ineffective behaviors used as means of survival in stressed families
-transactions: boundaries, alignments, power
Describe Communication family theories, from the Family Systems model
-"Conjoint Therapy" (book)
-self-esteem and maturation key concepts
-"absence of ill health is not the same as presence of good health"
-Styles of comm: placator, blamer, computer, distractor, leveler
b: a preconceived opinion about something or someone
P: negative attitudes, belief, judgments about a group of people
E: values of one's cult. more important than others
s: overgeneralization about group of people
What are 3 kinds of racism?
-Individual (indiv. person dislikes someone/a people)
-Institutional (ie social policies and laws against a people)
-cultural (societal beliefs/customs that whites are better)
What are the stages of forming a White Racial ID?
I: abandon racism
1. contact (satisfied_
2. disintegration (anxiety, racial dilemmas)
3. reintegration (idolize White)

II: accept whiteness
4. pseudo-independence (tolerate, accept others)
5. immersion/emersion (appraise and recognize diffs)
6. autonomy (let go of white privs)
What are the steps in forming a Person of Color Racial ID?
1. conformity (devalue own group)
2. dissonance (ambivalence)
3. immersion/emersion (idolize own group)
4. internalization (positive commitment to group)
5. integrative awareness (value own ID, empathize w/oppressed groups)
What are 10 strategies for understanding biases?
1. Bias is part of human condition
2. bias can be good or bad
3. must examine own biases
4. work to change biases
5. actions spk louder than words
6. non-guilty approach (can't change past, can change the now)
7. take active approach
8. remember 4 response possibilities
9. connx btwn shame and violence
10. ongoing, long-term process
What are the 4 response possibilities referred to in the 10 strategies for understanding biases?
1. make it a teachable moment
2. don't assume!
3. use "I" messages
4. criticize behavior, not the person.
What are two main APPROACHES to counseling?
by informing

by persuading
What are some applications and limitations to Behavioral Counseling as described by Luterman?
app: shape unwanted behaviors or habits. Kids: Froot Loops

lim: no emphasis on relationships, personal growth, self-esteem. Separates problem from whole person. Gives "What's in it for me?" attitude to therapy. We DO have choices about many behaviors, not ALL externally forced
What are some applications and limitations to Humanistic Counseling as described by Luterman?
app: form strong client/ician relationships, which improves many therapy sessions

lim: not directly applicable to measurement, teaching, or training. Unstructured, no "lesson plan. " Diff. for young kids/ cog. disabled
What are some applications and limitations to Existential Counseling as described by Luterman?
app: Death awareness mobilizes client--time awareness = quality time spent. Freedom/responsibility issue of great value--motivated to help self. Loneliness--ComDis = cut off from others. Meaning often issue, "Why did this happen to me?"

lim: more a philosophy, not a technique.
What are some applications and limitations to Cognitive Therapy as described by Luterman?
app: recognize "insane" sentence helps take responsibility for feelings and change. Change the language, great improvement in client.

lim: RET designed for people with crazy feelings--our clients have real concerns. Leans into "persuasion" counseling
What are Erikson's 8 Stages of the life cycle?
1. Trust v Mistrust
2. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt
3. Initiative v Guilt
4. Industry v Inferiority
5. ID v Role Confusion
6. Intimacy v Isolation
7. Generatively v Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity v Despair
How are Erikson's Life Style Stages applied to ComDis counseling?
-issues with stages seen well with deaf clients
-difficulty trusting, impaired comm = impaired autonomy, low competency if expectations are low, ID issues if of hearing parents, poorly prepared for adult life
What are some of the primary emotions of Comm Disorders as described by Luterman?
What are some Coping Strategies identified by Luterman?
-stress reduction
Describe "Empathic Listening"
-uses questions to clarify
-paraphrases content and feelings
-reading of non-verbal lang.
-use of open body position
-offer touch as appropriate
-offer self-disclosure
-use of affect displays - show you're interested
Compare listening processing speed vs speech speed. Why is this an issue?
Speech = 115-165 words per minute
Listen/Thoughts = 500 words per minute

-> lots of time for mind to wander
What ar3 4 leading indicators of psychological stress?
-irritability and anger if things don't go your way
-restlessness and inability to relax
-worrying about things that won't help
-difficulty in concentrating
What are some stress-hardy characteristics, as described by Suzanne Kobasta?
-commitment to self
-control what happens to you
-see challenge as an opportunity for growth
-having community of persons
What are 5 Categories of Imagery, as used in guided imagery and meditation?
-motivational-specific (see self winning event)
-Motivational-general (see self mastering challenges)
-motivational-general-arousal ("psych up", reflects feelings"
-cognitive-specific (see self performing specific skill)
-cognitive-general (imagine strategies and game plan)
What are some of the fields that current counseling methods evolved from?
cultural antrho
working world
What were some methods and goals in early 20th century counseling?
-generic helping relationship
-good advice and human concern
-enhancing individual development
-increasing qual. of indiv. thinking
-use social experiences to devel. humane and caring citizens
What are 5 historical foundations for counseling and counseling psych?
-vocational guidance movement
-mental health movement
-psychometric movement
-development of non-medical counseling and psychotherepy
-changes in social and econ. conditions in US