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121 Cards in this Set

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Which triangle-shaped muscle covers the shoulder, lifts or turns the arm?
bicep
deltoid
tricep
pectoralis
Deltoid.

The deltoid covers the shoulder. This triangle-shaped muscle lifts the arm or turns it.
What is the large, flat bone extending from the middle of the back upward to where it joins with the clavicle?
ribs
scapula
carpals
cervical vertabrae
Scapula.

The large, flat bone extending from the middle of the back upward to the joint where it attaches to the clavicle is called the scapula.
What part of the muscle applies to the midsection of the muscle, between the two attached sections?
origin
belly
insertion
cardiac
Belly.

The belly is the term applied to the midsection of the muscle, between the two attached sections.
The extensor, which is located mid-forearm on the outside of the arm, performs which action?
lifts the arm
turns the palm of the hand
straightens the fingers and wrists
swings the arms back and forth
Straightens the fingers and wrists.

The extensor is located mid-forearm, on the outside of the arm. This muscle straightens the fingers and wrists.
The peripheral nervous system is composed of:
the pons
the brain
medulla oblongata
sensory and motor nerves
Sensory and motor nerves.

The peripheral nervous system is composed of sensory and motor nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.
The mixed nerve that is responsible for transmitting facial sensations to the brain and is the largest of the cranial nerves is called the:
facial nerve
trifacial nerve
motor nerve
seventh cranial
Trifacial nerve.

The largest of the cranial nerves, the trifacial nerve is the mixed nerve primarily responsible for transmitting facial sensations to the brain and controlling facial muscle movements.
Which two glands make up the integumentary system?
duct and sebaceous
ductless and sudoriferous
duct and ductless
sebaceous and sudoriferous
Sebaceuous and sudoriferous.

The two primary glands of the integumentary system are the sebaceous and the sudoriferous glands.
The spongy bone found between the eyes that forms part of the nasal cavity is called the:
frontal
ethmoid
occipital
temporal
Ethmoid.

The ethmoid is the spongy bone between the eyes that forms part of the nasal cavity.
The two bones of the upper jaw are called:
frontal
sphenoid
maxillae
sternum
Maxillae.

The maxillae are the two bones of the upper jaw.
Most of the cell's activities take place in the:
nucleus
cytoplasm
protoplasm
cell membrane
Cytoplasm.

The cytoplasm, or production department of the cell, is where most of the cell's activities take place.
The long and short thread-like fibers that differentiate nerve cells from other cells are called:
axons
neurons
dendrites
receptors
Axons.

Nerve cells differ in appearance from other cells due to the long and short thread-like fibers called axons.
The brain, spinal cord and spinal and cranial nerves all compose which nervous system?
central
peripheral
autonomic
lymph-vascular
Central.

The central or cerebrospinal system is composed of the brain, spinal cord and spinal and cranial nerves.
The muscle between the brows across the bridge of the nose that draws the brows down is the:
mentalis
procerus
corrugator
orbicularis oculi
Procerus.

The procerus, located between the eyebrows across the bridge of the nose, draws brows down and wrinkles the area across the bridge of the nose.
What is another name for histology?
gross anatomy
microscopic anatomy
osteology
physiology
Microscopic anatomy.

The study of structures too small to be seen except through a microscope is called histology or microscopic anatomy.
Which two muscles in the neck and upper back draw the head back, rotate the shoulder blades and control the swinging of the arm?
platysma and risorius
temporalis and masseter
platysma and sternocleido mastoideus
trapezius and latissimus dorsi
Trapezius and lattissimus dorsi.


The trapezius and latissimus dorsi cover the back of the neck and upper back. These muscles draw the head back, rotate the shoulder blades and control the swinging of the arm.
How many times per minute does the normal heart beat?
30-40
60-80
130-140
160-180
60-80.

The normal heart beats 60-80 times per munute.
Which organ converts and neutralizes ammonia from the circulatory system to urea?
heart
brain
liver
skin
Liver.

The liver converts and neutralizes ammonia from the circulatory system to urea.
Muscles produce movement through tightening and:
massaging
contracting
relaxing
dilating
Relaxing.

Muscles produce movement through contracting (tightening) and expansion (relaxing).
The occipitalis muscle is located at the nape of the neck and draws the scalp:
back
forward
to the left
to the right
Back.

The occipitalis muscle is located at the nape of the neck and draws the scalp back.
What is the body's largest organ and forms a protective layer over the body?
lungs
liver
intestines
skin
Skin.

The skin, the body's largest organ, forms the external protective layer of the body.
Which artery supplies the lower portion of the face, including the mouth and nose?
occipital
posterior auricular
superficial temporal
external maxillary
External maxillary.

The external maxillary supplies the lower portion of the face, including the mouth and nose.
How many groups are the bones of the skull divided into?
two
three
four
five
Two.

Bones of the skull are divided into two groups: the eight bones of the cranium and the fourteen bones of the facial skeleton.
Which of the following is NOT a primary component of the nervous system?
brain
muscles
nerves
spinal cord
Muscles.

Primary components of the nervous system include the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
What is the function of the excretory system?
allow procreation of a living organism
break food down to be absorbed by the body
allow the body to intake oxygen
eliminate solid, liquid and gaseous waste products
Eliminate solid, liquid and gaseous waste products.

The excretory system eliminates solid, liquid and gaseous waste products from the body.
The sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body bringing nourishment and oxygen to the body parts is:
blood
plasma
platelets
nutrients
Blood.

Blood is the sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body bringing nourishment and oxygen to all body parts and carrying toxins and waste products to the liver and kidneys to be eliminated.
Which of the following is NOT a facial nerve branch?
buccal
temporal
mandibular
medulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata.

The posterior auricular, temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular and cervical branches are all facial nerve branches.
Which of the following methods is NOT used to stimulate muscles?
massage
moist heat
electric current
sleep
Sleep.

Massage, electric current, light and heat rays, moist heat, nerve impulses and chemicals are all used to stimulate muscle tissue.
This body system controls the circulation of blood and lymph through the body is the:
circulatory
muscular
endocrine
lymph-vascular
Circulatory.

The circulatory or vascular system controls the circulation of blood and lymph through the body.
What controls all three subsystems of the nervous system?
heart
occipital
brain
spinal cord
Brain.

The brain controls all three subsystems of the nervous system.
Which of the following facial bones is NOT involved in facial massage?
nasal
lacrimal
vomer
maxillae
The vomer is unaffected by facial massage while the mandible, the maxillae, the nasal, the zygomatic and the lacrimal are involved in facial massage.
The orbicularis oculi closes the eyelid and circles around the:
nose
mouth
eyebrow
eyesocket
Eyesocket.

The orbicularis oculi circles the eyesocket and functions to close the eyelid.
Which scalp muscle extends from the forehead to the top of the skull, and raises the eyebrows?
belly
striated
frontalis
epicranium
Frontalis.

The frontalis muscle extends from the forehead to the top of the skull. It raises eyebrows or draws the scalp forward.
The nervous system is divided into how many subsystems?
2
3
4
5
3.

The nervous system is divided into three subsystems: central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
All of the following are muscle areas a salon professional is primarily concerned with EXCEPT for the:
neck
arms
face
back
Back.

The salon professional is primarily concerned with the voluntary muscles of the head, face, neck, arms and hands.
About how many total muscles are there in the body?
50
100
300
500
500.

There are more than 500 large and small muscles in the body, composing approximately 40% of the body's weight.
The muscles that are located in the palm of the hand and cause the thumb to move toward the fingers to make a fist are called:
extensor
abductor
adductor
opponens
Opponens.

The opponens muscles are located in the palm of the hand and cause the thumb to move toward the fingers, giving the ability to grasp or make a fist.
What is the study of the structure, function and diseases of the muscles?
anatomy
histology
myology
osteology
Myology.

Myology is the study of the structure, function and diseases of the muscles.
The muscle that circles the mouth is responsible for contracting, puckering or wrinkling the lips is the:
buccinator
zygomaticus
oris orbicularis
quadratus labii superioris
Oris orbicularis.

The oris orbicularis circles the mouth and is responsible for contracting, puckering and wrinkling the lips, as in kissing or whistling.
Which of the following descriptions is NOT a function of the musclar system?
support for the skeleton
contouring of the body
circulating lymph throughout the body
production of body movements
Circulating lymph throughout the body.

The functions of the muscular system include support of the skeleton, production of body movements, contouring of the body and involvement in the functions of other body systems.
The physical foundation of the body is the:
skeletal system
nervous system
muscular system
reproductive system
Skeletal system.

The physical foundation of the body is the skeletal system.
A group of body structures and/or organs that, together, perform vital functions for the body is referred to as a(n):
tissue
organ
system
cell
System.

A system is a group of body structures and/or organs that, together, perform one or more vital functions for the body.
What is the study of bone called?
anatomy
physiology
histology
osteology
Osteology.

Osteology is the study of bone.
The two bones located on either side of the head and above the ears, are called the:
skull
frontal
temporal
flat bones
Temporal.

The temporal are the two bones located on either side of the head, directly above the ears and below the parietal.
The bone located on the little finger side of the lower arm is the:
ulna
radius
thorax
cervical vertabrae
Ulna.

The ulna is the bone located on the little finger side of the lower arm.
The tissue type that carries food, waste products and hormones is:
liquid tissue
connective tissue
nerve tissue
muscular tissue
Liquid tissue.

Liquid tissue carries food, waste products and hormones.
The two types of muscle tissues - striated and:
voluntary
non-striated
cardiac
dilator
Non-striated.

There are two types of muscle tissue: striated and non-striated.
What does hemoglobin do?
reacts with oxygen to create red blood cells
repels oxygen
attracts oxygen
changes oxygen into carbon dioxide
Attracts oxygen.

Hemoglobin attracts oxygen molecules through a process known as oxygenation.
Which system regulates and controls the growth, reproduction and health of the body?
nervous system
endocrine system
circulatory system
reproductive system
Endocrine system.

The endocrine system is composed of a group of specialized ductless glands that regulate and control the growth, reproduction and health of the body.
What is the name of the largest bone of the facial skeleton and consists of the lower jaw?
nasal
maxillae
mandible
cranium
Mandible.

The mandible is the lower jaw and the largest bone of the facial skeleton.
The study of the functions of the organs and systems of the body is known as:
anatomy
physiology
biology
gross anatomy
Physiology.

Physiology is the study of the functions the organs and systems perform.
The nonmoving portion of the muscle attached to bones or other fixed muscles is the:
origin
belly
insertion
cardiac
Origin.

The origin is the nonmoving (fixed) portion of the muscle attached to bones or other fixed muscles.
Which type of muscle responds automatically to control various body functions?
striated
voluntary
non-striated
cardiac
Non-striated.

The involuntary or non-striated muscles respond automatically to control various body functions including the functions of internal organs.
Which type of tissue supports, protects and holds the body together?
nerve tissue
epithelial tissue
connective tissue
muscular tissue
Connective tissue.

Connective tissue supports, protects and holds the body together.
The seventh cranial nerve is also known as the:
facial nerve
trifacial nerve
sensory nerve
fifth cranial nerve
Facial nerve.

The facial nerve is also known as the seventh cranial nerve.
The two sub-systems of the circulatory system are the lymph-vascular system and the:
cardiac system
lymph system
cardiovascular system
pericardium system
Cardiovascular system.

The circulatory system is divided into two sub-systems called the cardiovascular and the lymph-vascular systems.
Which structures of the nerve cells receive the messages sent by the nerve terminals?
pons
axons
dendrites
receptors
Dendrites.

The short fibers that receive the messeges sent by the nerve cells are called dendrites.
The study of structures too small to be seen without using a microscope is called:
physiology
biology
gross anatomy
microscopic anatomy
Microscopic anatomy.

The study of structures too small to be seen except through a microscope is called histology or microscopic anatomy.
Which organ of the respiratory system expands and contracts automatically to force air into and out of the lungs?
liver
kidneys
diaphragm
esophagus
Diaphragm.

The diaphragm expands and contracts automatically, forcing air into and out of the lungs.
What gets released by the salivary glands to help break down food?
peptide
enzymes
pharynx
salivary glands
Enzymes.

Rationale:The digestive process begins as soon as food is ingested, when enzymes secreted by the salivary glands start breaking down food.
The lower chambers of the heart include the:
left atrium
right atrium
left and right ventricle
flexor
Left and right ventricle.

The interior of the heart contains four chambers. The lower chambers consist of the right ventricle and the left ventricle.
Which system involves the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries?
respiratory
cardiovascular
digestive
muscular
Cardiovascular.

The cardiovascular or blood-vascular system, which is responsible for the circulation of blood, includes the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.
Neurology is the study of the:
nervous system
respiratory system
digestive system
endocrine system
Nervous system.

The study of the nervous system is called neurology.
All of the following bones help make up the chest EXCEPT:
ribs
sternum
mandible
thoracic vertabrae
Mandible.

The chest, or thorax, is the bony cage composed of the thoracic vertabrae, the sternum and ribs.
Which of the following statements is NOT a function of the skeletal system?
allowing body movement
protecting the internal organs
supporting the body by giving it shape and strength
helps circulate blood throughout the body
Helps circulate blood throughout the body.

The functions of the skeletal system include allowing body movement, protecting the internal organs and supporting the body by giving it shape and strength.
If you draw your hand back from touching a hot stove, what is this interaction between sensory and motor nerves called?
reflex action
sensory action
receptor action
trifacial action
Reflex action.

Reflex action is the interaction of sensory and motor nerves.
The fourteen bones that form the digits or fingers are called:
ulna
carpals
phalanges
metacarpals
Phalanges.

The phalanges are the fourteen bones that form the digits or fingers.
Which of the following is true of arteries?
They contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow.
They have thicker walls than veins.
They carry oxygen-poor blood.
They are thin, small vessels
They have thicker walls than veins.

Arteries are tubular, elastic, thick-walled branching vessels that carry pure blood from the heart through the body.
How much does the average human brain weigh?
between 20 and 25 ounces
between 32 and 38 ounces
between 44 and 48 ounces
between 75 and 82 ounces
Between 44 and 48 ounces.

The average human brain weighs between 44 and 48 ounces.
The hyoid bone located in the throat is sometimes referred to as the:
spine
ribs
thorax
Adam's apple
Adam's apple.

The hyoid bone is the u-shaped bone referred to as the "Adam's apple" located in the throat.
What types of nerves are found in the arm and hand?
cranial nerves
mixed nerves
motor nerves only
sensory nerves only
Mixed nerves.

All four of the primary nerves found in the arm and/or hand are mixed nerves.
What is another name for red blood cells?
plasma
leukocytes
hemoglobin
erythrocytes
Erythrocytes.

Another name for red blood cells is erythrocytes.
The study of the organs and systems of the body is called:
anatomy
physiology
cosmetology
biology
Anatomy.

Anatomy is the study of the organs and systems of the body.
Which part of the brain is responsible for mental activity?
pons
cerebrum
cerebellum
spinal cord
Cerebrum.

The cerebrum, responsible for mental activity, is located in the upper, front portion of the cranium.
The part of the brain that controls and coordinates muscle movements is the:
pons
cerebrum
cerebellum
spinal cord
Cerebellum.

The cerebellum is responsible for the control and coordination of muscle movement.
The body system that controls the body's breathing is the:
skeletal system
circulatory system
respiratory system
integumentary system
Respiratory system.

The respiratory system controls the body's breathing.
Which muscle is of primary interest if a salon professional is performing a scalp massage?
cardiac
epicranium
origin
corrugator
Epicranium.

The scalp or epicranium is of primary interest when performing a scalp massage.
Which two bones join to form the bridge of the nose?
nasal
maxillae
skull
zygomatic
Nasal.

The nasal are the two bones which join to form the bridge of the nose.
Which crucial part of the central nervous system is composed of long nerve fibers and originates in the base of the brain and extends to the base of the spine?
pons
spinal cord
dendrite system
medulla oblongata
Spinal cord.

The spinal cord, composed of long nerve fibers, originates in the base of the brain and extends to the base of the spine.
What is the name of the point where two or more bones are joined together?
joint
cranium
temporal
osteology
Joint.

A joint is the point at which two or more bones are joined together.
The upper chambers of the heart include the:
left and right atrium
left ventricle
right ventricle
extensor
Left and right atrium.

The interior of the heart contains four chambers. The upper chambers consist of the right atrium and the left atrium.
Which of the following structures is NOT an organ?
brain
heart
eyes
feet
Feet.

Feet are not considered an organ of primary importance.
Hair growth, skin conditions and energy levels are all controlled by the:
digestive system
excretory system
endocrine system
circulatory system
Endocrine system.

The endocrine system directly affects hair growth, skin conditions and energy levels.
Which body system sends and receives body messages?
muscular
nervous
circulatory
endocrine
Nervous.

The nervous system sends and receives the body's messages.
The cone-shaped, muscular organ located in the chest cavity is the:
heart
artery
atrium
capillary
Heart.

The heart, a cone-shaped, muscular organ located in the chest cavity, is normally the size of a closed fist.
Which blood cells are responsible for the clotting of blood?
leukocytes
thrombocytes
erythrocytes
plasma
Thrombocytes.

Blood platelets or thrombocytes are responsible for the clotting of blood.
Bone is the hardest structure in the body and is composed of 1/3 organic matter and:
2/3 mineral matter
2/3 hydrogen
2/3 oxygen
2/3 nitrogen
2/3 mineral matter.

Bone is the hardest structure of the body with a composition that is 2/3 mineral matter and 1/3 organic matter.
The humerus extends from the elbow to the:
wrist
shoulder
top of the neck
fingertips
Shoulder.

The humerus, the largest bone of the upper arm, extends from the elbow to the shoulder.
Which nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles?
motor
sensory
reflex
trifacial
Motor.

Motor or efferent nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles.
An adult human has how much blood circulating throughout the body?
4 to 6 pints
4 to 6 quarts
8 to 10 pints
8 to 10 quarts
8 to 10 pints.

On average, an adult has 8 to 10 pints of blood flowing through the circulatory system.
What is the function of white blood cells?
they carry oxygen
help clot blood
fight bacteria
regulate the heart
Fight bacteria.

White blood cells fight bacteria and other foreign substances and increase in number when infection invades the body.
The muscle of the heart is called the:
cardiac
striated
voluntary
non-striated
Cardiac.

The cardiac muscle is the muscle of the heart itself and is the only muscle of its type in the human body.
During which process does the body store water, food and oxygen for times when they are needed by the body?
anabolism
catabolism
circulation
digestion
Anabolism.

During anabolism, the body stores water, food and oxygen for the times when they are needed by the body.
Groups of cells of the same kind make up:
tissues
lungs
systems
organs
Tissues.

Groups of cells of the same kind make up tissues.
Which nervous system is responsible for all involuntary body functions?
central
peripheral
trifacial
autonomic
Autonomic.

The autonomic system is responsible for all involuntary body functions.
Which the following is a problem salon professionals can develop from long periods of standing?
varicose veins
tendonitis
diabetes
heart condition
Varicose veins.

Varicose veins may be one of the problems experienced by salon professionals, due to long periods of standing.
Which arteries supply blood to the head, face and neck?
submental
common carotid
external carotid
internal carotid
Common carotid.

Blood is supplied to the head, face and neck by the common carotid arteries.
These types of vessels take nutrients and oxygen from the arteries to the cells:
capillaries
veins
varicose veins
ventricles
Capillaries.

Capillaries are small vessels that take nutrients and oxygen from the arteries to the cells and take waste products from the cells to the veins.
The muscle that is located under the arm and helps in lifting the arm and in breathing is the:
bicep
extensor
deltoid
serratus anterior
Serratus anterior.

The serratus anterior is located under the arm. This muscle helps in lifting the arm and in breathing.
What part of the cell is known as the control center?
cytoplasm
protoplasm
nucleus
cell membrane
Nucleus.

The nucleus, or control center, of cell activities.
Which phase of metabolism involves breaking down larger molecules or substances into smaller ones?
digestion
anabolism
catabolism
metabolism
Catabolism.

Catabolism is the process of breaking down larger molecules or substances into smaller ones.
The muscle located at the corner of the mouth and draws the mouth up and out as in grinning is called the:
risorius
mentalis
triangularis
platysma
Risorius.

The risorius located at the corner of the mouth, draws the mouth up and out, as in grinning.
Which of the following is NOT a primary type of tissue?
nerve tissue
liquid tissue
epithelial tissue
skeletal tissue
Skeletal tissue.

Primary types of tissue include epithelial, connective, nerve, muscular and liquid tissue.
Which hand muscles separate the fingers?
flexor
opponens
adductor
abductor
Abductor.

Abductor muscles separate the fingers.
What are the basic units of living matter?
cells
kidneys
bones
tissues
Cells.

Cells are the basic units of living matter (life).
The cervical vertabrae are the seven bones that form the top part of the:
chest
arm
wrist
spinal column
Spinal column.

The cervical vertabrae are the seven bones that form the top part of the spinal column.
Which mastication muscle is located above and in front of the ear and opens and closes the jaw?
masseter
buccinator
temporalis
latissimus dorsi
Temporalis.

The temporalis is located above and in front of the ear and performs both opening and closing the jaw, as in chewing (mastication).
What is the name of the skeleton of the head that encloses and protects the brain?
parietal
skull
cranium
mandible
Skull.

The skull is the skeleton of the head that encloses and protects the brain and primary sensory organs.
The mandibular nerve branch extends to the muscles of the chin and the:
neck
cheek
lower lip
top of the head
Lower lip.

The mandibular nerve branch extends to the muscles of the chin and lower lip.
Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the insertion attachment to the:
belly attachment
origin attachment
voluntary attachment
involuntary attachment
Origin attachment.

Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the insertion attachment to the origin attachment.
The intake of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide by the body are functions of the:
digestive system
respiratory system
endocrine system
reproductive system
Respiratory system.

The primary functions of the respiratory system are the intake of oxygen to be absorbed by the blood and exhalation of carbon dioxide.
The entire process of blood traveling from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart is called:
vein circulation
local circulation
arterial circulation
general circulation
General circulation.

The entire process of blood traveling from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart is referred to as systemic or general circulation.
Which mouth muscle is located between the jaws and cheek and is responsible for compressing the cheek to release air outwardly, as in blowing?
platysma
caninus
buccinator
zygomaticus
Buccinator.

The buccinator, located between the jaws and cheek, is responsible for compressing the cheek to release air outwardly, as in blowing.
The three basic parts of a cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm and:
tissue
protoplasm
organs
cell membrane
Cell membrane.

A cell contains three basic parts: the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane.
The eight small bones held together by ligaments to form the wrist are called:
ribs
phalanges
carpals
metacarpals
Carpals.

The carpals are the eight small bones held together by ligaments to form the wrist or carpus.
Which of the following is NOT a mouth muscle?
caninus
mentalis
trapezius
oris orbicularis
Trapezius.

The trapezius and latissimus dorsi cover the back and upper back.
The system that breaks food down to either be easily absorbed by cells or to become waste products is the:
digestive system
nervous system
excretory system
respiratory system
Digestive system.

The digestive system breaks down food into simpler chemical compounds that can be easily absorbed by cells or eliminated from the body in waste products.
What is the main nerve branch consisting of the top 1/3 of the face?
facial
maxillary
mandibular
ophthalmic
Opthalmic.

The ophthalmic branch is the main nerve branch to the top 1/3 of the face.
Which muscle is located between the eyebrows, controls the eyebrows, drawing them in and downward?
procerus
non-striated
mentalis
corrugator
Corrugator.

The corrugator located between the eyebrows controls the eyebrows, drawing them in and downward.
The fluid part of the blood, also known as plasma, is what percentage of water?
40
55
75
90
90.

Plasma is about 90 % water.
The colorless liquid produced as a byproduct when plasma passes nourishment to capillaries and cells is known as:
lymph
protein
blood
blood platelets
Lymph.

Lymph is a colorless liquid produced as a byproduct in the process through which plasma passes nourishment to capillaries and cells.
The chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for cell growth and reproduction is known as:
anabolism
physiology
metabolism
catabolism
Metabolism.

The chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for cell growth and reproduction is known as metabolism.