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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why does correlation not equal causation?
experimenter does not have control over variables (no internal validity)
types of correlations
pearson- 2 continuous
point biserial- 1 continuous & 1 dichotomous
phi- 2 dichotomous
spearman rho- 2 rank
coefficient of determination
shared variance (r squared)
2 characteristic of psychological test
standardized and objective
3 types of tests
speed, power, mastery
4 types of reliability ...
test retest, alternate forms, internal consistenty, interrater
3 types of internal consistency
split half, KR-20, cronbach
interrater measured by..
what is it affected by..
kappa coefficient
observer drift
most strict form of reliability is..
alternate forms
which form of reliability overestimates..
internal consistency
reliablity tells accuracy of.. SEM tells accuracy of..
obtained scores
an individual score
4 things that affect reliability
test length, homogenity of examinees, ability to guess, & difficulty level
3 types of validity
content, construct, criterion related
2 incorrect decisions that result from using predictors in decision making
false positive- pass predictor, fail criterion
false negative- fail predictor, pass criterion
most common standard score
z score
criterion contamination
overestimates validity
ceiling effect is...
floor effect is...
hard to discriminate among high scorers
hard to discriminate among low scorers
personality tests have a reliability of
industrial setting selection test
spearman brown formula used to
correct split half reliability
2 types of tests good for speeded testing?
test retest & alternate forms
formula for standard error of measurement (SEM)
SEM means...
std dev * (sqrt of 1-reliability)
likelihood obtained score = true score
1 SEM=
2 SEM=
3 SEM=
68%, 95%, 99%
correlation of GRE & GPA correlation of GRE & faculty ratings
.33, .41
Standard error of measurement(SEM):Standard error of estimate (SEst)
reduce false positives by but which easier to manipulate
increasing predictor cutoff or reducing criterion cutoff -predictor cutoff
shrinkage is..
validity coefficient decreases when result cross validated
explain true positive, false positive, true negative, false negative
valid acceptance, false acceptance, valid rejection, invalid rejection
monotrait-heteromethod.. heterotrait-monomethod..
high= convergent validity
low= discriminant validity
cluster analysis used to
develop a classification system
reliability does what to validity?
sets upper limit for validity
validity equal to or less than
sqrt of reliability
correction for attenuation
tells what validity would be if predictor & criterion perfectly reliable
best test difficulty level?
.50 (moderate)
Item characteristic curves graph.. slope of the curve tells.. so less steep curves..
how difficult item was
how well item discriminates
discriminate best
2 types of developmental norms are
mental age scores & grade equivalents
2 limitations of developmental norms
does not allow different age comparison or different test comparison
2 types of within group norms are
%tile rank and standard score
limitation of %tile rank
only for ordinal data so doesn't allow interpretation of absolute difference
4 types of standard scores
z score, T score, stanine, deviation IQ
z score formula
(score - mean)/std dev.