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57 Cards in this Set

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hormones
chemical messengers secreted by various glands within the endocrine system

released in response to change in body's internal environment
Addison's disease
hyposecretion of glucocorticoids & aldosterone by the adrenal cortex
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
hormone secreted by the pituitary that stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex
atrophy
shrinkage/wasting away of tissue
basal metabolic rate
resting rate of metabolism in the body
cretinism
dwarfism & mental retardation caused by lack of thyroid hormone during infancy
Cushing's syndrome
condition caused by excessive corticosteroid secretion by adrenal glands or by overdosage w/corticosteroid meds
diabetes insipidus (DI)
excessive urination due to lack of secretion of antidiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus, type 1
deficiency of insulin secretion by pancreas

usually begins in early teens
diabetes mellitus, type 2
insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreas or by lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors

usually begins in middle age
dwarfism
below normal height caused by deficiency in thyroid hormone or growth hormone
follicular cells
cells in thyroid gland that secrete thyroid hormone
glucocorticoid
type of hormone secreted by outer portion of adrenal gland that includes cortisol
Grave's disease
syndrome caused by hypersecretion of thyroid hormone
hyperglycemia
abnormally high level of glucose in blood
hypoglycemia
abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
hypothalamus
region of brain affecting emotions & drives

secretes releasing factors that affect the pituitary gland
islets of Langerhans
AKA pancreatic islets

clusters of cells in pancreas responsible for secretion of insulin & glucagon
ketoacids
waste products of lipid metabolism that lower the pH of the blood
myxedema
condition caused by insufficient secretion of thyroid hormone
negative feedback
in homeostasis, when first hormone in pathway is shut off by last hormone or product in pathway
parafollicular cells
cells in the thyroid gland that secrete calcitonin
pituitary gland
endocrine gland in the brain responsible for controlling many other endocrine glands
releasing factors
hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that affect secretions in the pituitary gland
vasopressin
AKA antidiuretic hormone
somatotropin
AKA growth hormone
The treatment goal with insulin therapy is to maintain blood glucose levesl within strict, normal limits.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
Natrual hormones released by glands that have normal function are called _____ hormones.
endogenous
_____ _____ is a therapeutic approach applied in cases where clients are unable to secrete sufficient quantities of their own hormones.
Replacement therapy
Juvenile-onset diabetes is called 1_____; age-onset diabetes is referred to as 2_____.
1) type I

2) type II
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids results in a disorder called _____ _____.
Cushing's syndrome.
Propylthiouracil (Propacil) is usually administered to clients with a condition called _____.
hyperthyroidism
A class of drugs prescribed after diet and exercise have failed to bring blood glucose levels to within normal limits in Type II diabetes is _____ _____.
oral hypoglycemics
To increase basal metabolic rate, a hormone called 1_____ _____ _____ is released from the pituitary gland to cause the release of another hormone called 2_____ _____ _____.
1) thyroid releasing hormone

2) thyroid stimulating hormone
Vasopressin (Pitressin) is a medication used for clients with a disorder called _____ _____.
diabetes insipidus.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released from the parathyroid gland whenever blood levels of:
a. insulin fall
b. insulin rise
c. calcium fall
d. calcium rise
c. calcium fall
A common feature of negative feedback is to:
a. stimulate the release of a secondary hormone
b. stimulate the release of a primary hormone
c. inhibit the action of a secondary hormone
d. inhibit the action of a primary hormone
d. inhibit the action of a primary hormone
Which of the following is NOT an example of hormone replacement therapy?
a. thyroid hormone after thyroidectomy
b. supplying insulin to a client whose pancrease is not functioning
c. testosterone for breast cancer
d. adrenal cortex dysfunction
c. testosterone for breast cancer
Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin?
a. hyperglycemia
b. hypoglycemia
c. glucagon
d. ketoacids
a. hyperglycemia
Levothyroxine (Synthroid) causes which of the following effects?
a. loss of weight
b. feeling of being tired
c. reduced pulse rate
d. reduced body temperature
a. loss of weight
Which of the following hormones will ultimately result in release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands?
a. corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
b. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
c. falling levels of cortisol
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which of the following drugs is often administered by alternate-day dosing?
a. thyroid hormone
b. antithyroid therapy
c. glucocorticoid
d. insulin
c. glucocorticoid
Cushing's syndrome is a disorder associated with which of the following hormones?
a. mineralocorticoids
b. glucocorticoids
c. androgens
d. ADH
d. ADH
Which of the following is an adverse effect of hydrocortisone (Cortef, Hydrocortone) therapy?
a. asthma
b. rhinitis
c. nausea
d. mood and personality changes
d. mood and personality changes
Which of the following corticosteroids has mineralcorticoid activity?
a. hydrocortisone (Cortef, Hydrocortone)
b. methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol, Medrol)
c. prednisolone (Delta-Cortef)
d. prednisone (Deltasone)
a. hydrocortisone (Cortef, Hydrocortone)
Vasopressin (Pitressin) is indicated for which of the following primary symptoms?
a. altered metabolism
b. polyuria
c. inflammation
d. altered glucose blood levels
b. polyuria
Cells in the thyroid gland that secrete thyroid hormone.

---------- -----
follicular cells
Hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates ACTH release by the pituitary.

------------- --------- ------
corticotropin releasing factor
Gland whose secretion is into a duct or on the body surface.

-------- -----
exocrine gland
Waste products of lipid metabolism that lower the pH of the blood.

---------
ketoacids
Dwarfism and mental retardation caused by lack of thyroid hormone during infancy.

---------
cretinism
Hormone secreted by the pituitary that stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex.

------------------- -------
andrenocorticotropic hormone
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex.

-------- -------
Addison's disease
Type of hormone secreted by the outer portion of the adrenal gland that includes cortisol.

--------------
glucocorticoid
Chemicals secreted by endocrine glands that act as chemical messengers to affect homeostasis.

--------
hormones
Cells in the thyroid gland that secrete calcitonin.

-------------- -----
parafollicular cells
Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that affect secretions in the pituitary gland.

--------- -------
releasing factors