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32 Cards in this Set

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hyperlipidemia
high levels of lipids in the blood
cholesterol
natural lipid part of cell membranes

contributes to atherosclerotic plaque
hypercholesterolemia
type of hyperlipidemia most familiar to public

elevated blood cholesterol levels
plaque
fatty material that builds up in lining of blood vessels
triglycerides
type of lipid containing three fatty acids and a chemical backbone of glycerol

GG FFFFFFF
GG
GG FA-FA-FA...
GG
GG FA-FA-FA...
GG
GG FA-FA-FA...
phospholipids
phosphorous group replaces one of fatty acids in a triglyceride

GG FFFFFFF

PHPH GG
PHPH GG FA-FA-FA...
PHPH GG
PHPH GG FA-FA-FA...
lecithins
important part of cell membranes

phospholipid
steroids
lipid consisting of four rings

comprises certain hormones and drugs

cholesterol:
ch3
ch3
ch2
ch2
ch2
ch2
CH3-CH3
CH3 - CH3
sterol nucleus
diverse group of substances with a common chemical group

AKA 'ring'
lipoproteins
complex consisting of cholesterol, triglycerides, & phospholipids along with a protein carrier

"packaged" lipid molecules for transport in blood

(lipid molecules don't mix w/water)
high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
"good" lipoprotein with the most protein (up to 50%) and less cholesterol

recall: H=HELPER lipoprotein
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
"bad" lipoprotein with highest amount of cholesterol

recall: L=LOSER lipoprotein
very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
"bad" lipid-carrier that converts to LDL

recall: ineVitable Loser (VLDL)
omega-3 fatty acid
lipid found in high concentrations in certain fish

associated with lower risk of atherosclerosis
HMG CoA reductase
primary enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis
bile acid resins
bind bile acids containing high concentration of cholesterol
enterohepatic recirculation
recycling of bile acids, cholesterol, & other metabolites -> liver -> bile & through intestine -> back to liver
B-complex vitamin
group of water-soluble vitamins essential for nutrition

includes: thiamine - riboflavin - pyridoxine - niacin - biotin - cyanocobalamin
atorvastatin
AKA: Lipitor
CLASS: HMG CoA reductase inhibitor
ACTION: slows biosynthesis f cholesterol - blocks rate-limiting enzyme (HMG CoA reductase)which availablity of LDL and VLDL - up-regulates LDL receptors in liver
A/E: GI complaints - liver damage - birth defects
HMG CoA reductase inhibitor
cholestyramine
AKA: Questran
CLASS: bile acid-binding agent
ACTION: bind bile acids (containing ^ levels of cholesterol) - increases excretion of cholesterol as it cannot be reabsorbed
A/E:
bile acid-binding agent
gemfibrozil
AKA: Lopid
CLASS: fibric acid agent
ACTION:lower VLDLs
A/E: gallstones - affect liver function - GI problems
fibric acid agent
Cholesterol is the most common type of lipid, accounting for about 90% of all lipids in the body.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

Triglycerides are the major storage form of fat in the body and the only type of lipid that serves as an important energy source. They account for 90% of total lipids. p276
The steroids are a diverse group of lipids, having a common chemical group called the cholesterol nucleus or ring.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

The third class of lipids is the steroids, a diverse group of substances having a common chemical group called the STEROL NUCLEUS or ring. p276
Dietary cholesterol can only be obtained from animal food products.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE

p276
Lipoprotein (a) has been strongly associated with plaque formation and heart disease.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE

p279
Nutrionists recommend that dietary fat account for less than 10% of the total caloric intake.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

Nutritionists recommend that the intake of dietary fat be less than 30% of the total caloric intake. p280
The three basic types of lipids are 1_____, 2_____, and 3_____.
1 HDL
2 LDL
3 VLDL
Lipoproteins consist of various amounts of 1_____, 2_____, and 3_____, along with a protein carrier.
1 steroids/cholesterol
2 triglycerides
3 phopholipids
HMG CoA reductase serves as the primary regulatory enzyme for the biosynthesis of:
a. cholesterol
b. steroid hormones
c. triglycerides
d. HDL
a. cholesterol
Maximum effects from atorvastatin (Lipitor) take _____ to achieve.
a. 4 go 8 weeks
b. 2 weeks
c. 4 to 8 weeks
d. 3 to 4 months
c. 4 to 8 weeks
Which of the following is NOT true regarding cholestyramine (Questran)?
a. It is not absorbed or metabolized once it enters the intestine.
b. It acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis.
c. Its most frequent side effects are constipation, bloating, gas and nausea.
d. It should not be taken at the same time as other medications.
b. It acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis.
Which of the following should be taken separately from other mediactions, since it may interfere with drug absorption?
a. nicotinic acid
b. gemfibrozil (Lopid)
c. cholestyramine (Questran)
d. fluvastatin (Lescol)
c. cholestyramine (Questran)