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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
stopping of blood flow
clotting factors
substances contributing to the process of blood clotting

many come from the liver
small blood components that become sticky and clump together

accumulate at site of blood vessel inury and form a plug
formation of an insoluble clot
coagulation cascade
complex series of steps that begins when the injured cells release prothrombin activator

1. prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin

2. thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

3. fibrin strands form insoluble web over injured area & stop blood loss

process takes approx. 6 min
prothrombin activator
AKA prothrombinase

chemical that cells release when injured
blood protein converted to thrombin in hemostasis process
enzyme converted to fibrinogen during hemostasis process
plasma protein convereted to fibrin by thrombin during coagulation cascade
insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by thrombin during coagulation cascade
process of blood clot removal
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
chemical secreted by blood vessel cells when fibrin clot is formed

nautral enzyme & drug that dissolves blood clots
protein that prevents fibrin clot formation
enzyme formed from plasminogen that dissolves blood clots
inhibits formation of blood clots
drugs used to dissolve existing clots
promotes the formation of clots
prothrombin time (PT)
blood test to determine time needed for plasma to clot

for regulating WARFARIN dosage
activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT or PTT)
blood test to determine time needed for plasma to clot

for regulating HEPARIN dosage
stationary blood clot
clots carried in blood stream
thromboembolic disease
regarding disorders in which patients have clotting disorders
glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
enzyme necessary for platelet aggregation
AKA: Heplock
CLASS: anticoagulant
ACTION: binds to antithrombin III - causes inactivation of some clotting factors - inhibits thrombin activity - rapid onset
A/E: abnormal bleeding - hemorrhage
AKA: Coumadin
CLASS: anticoagulant
ACTION: inhibits action of vit K - vit K essential for synthesis of several clotting factors - several days for drug to take affect
A/E: abnormal bleeding
AKA: ReoPro
CLASS: antiplatelet
ACTION: interferes w/final step in platelet aggregation - binds to glycoptrotein IIb/IIIa receptor sites on platelets
A/E: unusual bleeding
AKA: Streptase
CLASS: thrombolytic
ACTION: converts plasminogen to plasmin - then degrades fibrin to dissolve preexising clots
A/E: abnormal bleeding - allergic reaction
aminocaproic acid
AKA: Amicar
CLASS: antifibrinolytic
ACTION: inactivates plasminogen - inhibit digestion of fibrin clot -
A/E: generally mild - use caution w/hx of thromboembolic dx
Regardless of the mechanism of drug action, all anticoagulant agents will decrease the normal time the body takes to form clots.

The process of clot removal is called _____.
a. embolysis
b. thrombolysis
c. plasminolysis
d. fibrinolysis
d. thrombolysis
Which lab test is most commonly used during therapy with heparin?
a. bleeding time
b. PT
c. INR
What is the primary advantage of using low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) over heparin?
a. LMWHs possess greater anticoagulant activity
b. LMWHs may be given by the oral route
c. LMWHs produce a more stable effect on coagulation, thus fewer lab tests are needed
d. LMWHs have a prolonged duration of action
c. LMWHs produce a more stable effect on coagulation, thus fewer lab tests are needed
What antagonist may be administered if serious hemorrhage occurs during heparin therapy?
a. protamine sulfate
b. Vitamin K
c. adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
d. desmopressin (DDAVP)
a. protamine sulfate
Unlike heparin, the anticoagulant activity of warfarin can take several _____ to reach its maximum effect.
a. minutes
b. hours
c. days
d. weeks
c. days
Aspirin causes its anticoagulant effect by inhibiting:
a. plasminogen
b. prothrombin
c. thromboxane A2
d. glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
c. thromboxane A2
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors act by blocking the final step in:
a. hemostasis
b. platelet aggregation
c. the activation of plasminogen
d. the formation of vitamin K
b. platelet aggregation
A client is receiving warfarin, which is 98% bound to plasm proteins. the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil), which is 95% bound, is added to the client's daily medications. If the paroxetine displaces warfarin from its binding sites, which of the following will most likely occur?
a. toxicity to warfarin
b. toxicity to paroxetine
c. diminished effect from warfarin
d. diminished effect from paroxetine
a. toxicity to warfarin
The antidepressant imipramine (Tofranil) is metabolized to its active form, desipramine, in the liver. How should the dose of imipramine be adjusted for patients with liver cirrhosis?
a. increased above average
b. decreased below average
c. an average dose should be used
d. this client should not receive imipramine
b. decreased below average
Which of the following is a widely used class of antipsychotic medications?
a. phenothiazines
b. benzodiazepines
c. MAO inhibitors
d. anticholinergics
a. phenothiazines