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34 Cards in this Set

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acetylcholinesterase
enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synapse

enhances effects of the neurotransmitter
Alzheimer's disease
characterized by loss of memory, confusion, disorientation, and loss of judgment

hallucinations & delusions may also occur

most common type of dementia
amyloid plaques
abnormal protein fragments r/t neuronal damage

symptom of Alzheimer's disease observed during autopsy
anti-Parkinson's drugs
attempt to restore balance of dopamine & acetylcholine in the brain
corpus striatum
area of the brain responsible for unconscious muscle movement

point of contact for neurons projecting from substania nigra
dementia
degernative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, and the inability to think or communicate effectively
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
muscles become very rigid due to over-medication w/anti-psychotics

also caused by lack of dopamine function in corpus striatium
hippocampus
region of brain responsible for learning & memory

part of limbic system
levodopa
drug administered for treatment of Parkinson's symptoms

natural enzyme within nerve terminals convert levodopa into dopamine
multiple-infarct dementia
caused by multiple strokes

AKA vascular dementia
neurofibrillary tangles
bundles of nerve fibers found in the brain of clients w/Alzheimer's disease on autopsy
Parkinson's disease
degenerative disorder of the nervous system caused by deficieny of neurotransmitter dopamine

results in disturbances of muscle movement
substantia nigra
region in brain where dopamine is synthesized

neurons from this area project to other areas in the brain responsible for regulation of muscle movement
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of facial muscles & tongue that occur due to long-term anti-psychotic therapy
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the nervous system caused by the death of neurons that produce:
a. dopamine
b. norepinephrine
c. acetylcholine
d. serotonin
c. acetylcholine
The cause of most cases of Parkinson's disease is:
a. stroke/CVA
b. trauma to the head
c. infection of the brain
d. unknown
d. unknown
Which of the following is not a common sign of early Parkinson's disease?
a. tremor
b. muscle rigidity and weakness
c. bradykinesia
d. dementia
d. dementia
The corpus striatum is an area of the brain important to Parkinson's disease because it controls:
a. voluntary muscle movement
b. unconscious muscle movement
c. conscious thought processes
d. wakefuleness
b. unconscious muscle movement
What is the relationship between acetylcholine and dopamine in the area of the brain that affects balance, posture, and involuntary muscle movmement?
a. both dopamine and acetylcholine stimulate this region
b. both dopamine and acetylcholine inhibit this region
c. dopamine stimulates and acetylcholine inhibits this region
d. dopamine inhibits and acetylcholine stimulates this region
d. dopamine inhibits and acetylcholine stimulates this region
What class of drugs may induce artificial Parkinsonism by interering with the same neural pathway and functions modified by a lack of dopamine?
a. phenothiazines
b. tricyclic antidepressants
c. MAO inhibitors
d. benzodiazepines
a. phenothiazines
The immeidate, short-term medical treatment of extrapyramidal signs can be provided by administering:
a. diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
b. procyclidine (Kemadrin)
c. levodopa
d. tacrine (Cognex)
a. diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
Which class of drugs is given to discourage the development of tardive dyskinesia in clients being treated for psychosis?
a. cholinergic drugs
b. anticholinergic drugs
c. dopaminergic drugs
d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
b. anticholinergic drugs
Which drug has been prescribed more extensively than any other medicationfor clients with Parkinson's disease?
a. carbidopa (Lodosyn)
b. benztropine (Cogentin)
c. levodopa (Laradopa)
d. tacrine (Cognex)
c. levodopa (Laradopa)
Which of the following are common side effects observed during therapy with levodopa (Laradopa)?
a. sleep disorders such as insomnia
b. sedation
c. involuntary muscle movements
d. seizures
c. involuntary muscle movements
If a client is unable to tolerate dopaminergic medications, which class of drugs would likely be prescribed?
a. cholinergic drugs
b. anticholinergic drugs
c. antipsychotic drugs
d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
b. anticholinergic drugs
Vascular dementia is usually caused by:
a. multiple strokes
b. multiple heart attacks
c. too little blood flow to the brain
d. lack of sufficient neurotransmitters in certain areas of the brain
a. multiple strokes
Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles within the brain are diagnostic signs of:
a. Parkinson's disease
b. tardive dyskinesia
c. vascular dementia
d. Alzheimer's disease
d. Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's drugs enhance the action of _____ in the brain.
a. dopamine
b. norpehinephrine
c. acetylcholine
d. serotonin
c. acetylcholine
Drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE) will:
a. increase levels of dopamine
b. decrease levels of dopamine
c. increase levels of acetylcholine
d. decrease levels of acetylcholine
c. increase levels of acetylcholine
A client with Parkinson's disease may experience difficulty urinating and performing sexually, which are signs of disturbances in the _____ nervous system.
autonomic
Drug therapy of Parkinson's disease focuses on restoring dopamine function and also blocking the effect of _____ within the same area of the brain.
acetylcholine
_____ _____ is a degenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, and inability to think or communicate effectively.
Alzheimer's disease
The most common causes of dementia are 1_____ 1_____ and 2_____ 2_____.
1) Alzheimer's disease

2) multiple strokes
Alzheimer's clients experience a dramatic loss of their ability to perform tasks that require _____ as a neurotransmitter.
acetylcholine