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95 Cards in this Set

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Which way did Columbus sail? What was he searching for? Did he ever find it?
Instead of sailing east, he sailed west across the Atlantic in search of an alternate trade route to Asia and its riches. He never reached Asia
When did Columbus and his crew come ashore?
October 12,1492
What does "Tierra" mean?
it means "land"
What did Columbus refer to the inhabitants of the Americas as?
los indios
What items did Columbus present to the Native Americans? What items did they give him in return?
he gave them some red caps and strings of glass beads to wear upon the neck and other trifles of small value. they brought parrots, balls of cotton thread, javelins, and many other things
Where did Columbus land? What were the people who lived there called? What did he name it?
an island in the Bahamas in the Caribbean Sea. The people were called the Taino. He named it San Salvador, or "Holy Savior"
What was Columbus interested in?
gold
What did Columbus say about possessing islands?
"It was my wish to bypass no island without taking possession"
Who funded Columbus' first voyage? How many more did they agree to finance?
Spain; 3 more trips
Columbus no longer journeyed as an explorer but as a(n) _______ ___________
empire builder
What did the Spanish intend to transform the islands of the Caribbean into?
colonies, or lands that are controlled by another nation
In 1500, who reached the shores of modern-day Brazil?
Pedro Alvares for Portugal
Amerigo Vespucci was a(n) ______ under the service of ______.
italian, portugal
Who discovered Panama?
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Who sailed around the southern end of South America and into the mysterious waters of the Pacific?
Magellan
How did Magellan die?
he became involed in a local war in the Philippines and was killed
How many of Magellan's original crew arrived back in Spain? What were they the first to do?
18 men; they were the first to sail around the world
What country's main export was sugar?
Brazil
Who wrote: "There is nothing more detestable or cruel, than the tyranny which the Spaniards use toward the Indians for the getting of pearl[riches]"
Dominican monk Bartolome de Las Casas
Largely in response to the writings of Las Casas the Spanish government did what?
abolished the encomienda system
Who suggested the use of Africans for labor?
Las Casas
Colombus encountered resistance in his attempt to conquer the present-day island of __________
St. Croix
How did the Taino on the island of St. Croix defend themselves?
by firing poison arrows
What did Spanish priests and soldiers do to the Native Americans?
the priests and soldiers often burned the NA's sacred objects and prohibited many native rituals. they also forced natives to work for them and sometimes abused them
What did Magellan's voyage show?
that ships could reach Asia by way of the Pacific Ocean
Who claimed the route around the southern tip of South America?
Spain
Not finding the route, the __________, ________, and _________ instead established colonies in North America
French, English, and Dutch
Who was Giovanni da Verrazzano? What was he looking for? What did he discover?
an Italian in the service of France. He was looking for a possible sea rout to the Pacific, he never found one. however he discovered New York Harbor
What did Jacques Cartier find?(France)
he found a river and named it St. Lawrence; he also found an island, which he named Mont Royal(later known as Montreal)
What did Samuel de Champlain do?(France)
he sailed up the St. Lawrence and laid claim to a region called Quebec
Where was New France?
Quebec
Who were Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet? What did they do?(France)
they explored the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi River.
What did Sieur de La Salle explore?(France)What did he name it?
he explored the lower Mississippi; he named it Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV(14th)
________ were almost extinct in Europe but plentiful in North America. This led to a thriving trade in ____.
Beavers; furs
Why did Jamestown fail at first? WHy did the colony's outlook improve?
they were mor einterested in finding gold than planting crops; it improved after farmers there discovered tobacco
Pilgrims founded a second English colony, _________ in ___________. There was also the Puritans who lived at ___________
Plymounth, in Mass.; Massachusetts Bay
Who was Henry Hudson? Who was he in the service of?
he was an Englishman in the service of the NEtherlands
What was Hudson looking for? Did he find it?
He was searching for a northwest route to Asia. He did not find it.
What did Hudson find?
Hudson river, Hudson Bay, and Hudson Strait
Dutch holdings in North America became known as ____ ________
New Netherland
New Netherland was ______
ethnically diverse
What Caribbean islands did France seize?
Haiti, Guadeloupe, and Martinique
What islands did the English settle?
Barbados and Jamaica
What islands did the Dutch capture?
the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba from Spain
Why did the English oust the Dutch? What happened as a result?
to the English, New Netherland had become a "dutch wedge" separating its northern and southern colonies. As a result the English king, Charles II, granted his brother the Duke of York permission to drive out the Dutch.
What the Duke of York came to New Netherland how did the Dutch react? What was the land named?
they surrendered without firing a shot. New York
What led to war between France and England?(in the Americas)
there was a dispute over land claims in the Ohio Valley, this conflict became known as the French and Indian War.
The French and Indian War was fought between whom?
the French and the Indians against the English
the French and Indian War became a part of a larger conflict known as the _______________. Who won?
Sever Year's War; the British colonists won.
What happened as a result of the French and Indian War?
the British seized control of nearly the entire eastern half of North America
What was the French and Dutch settlers relations with the Native Americans?
mostly cooperative relationship, this was due to the mutual benefits of the fur trade
What did the English sought to do?(unlike the French and Dutch)
they wanted to populate their colonies in North America, this meant pushing natives off their land
What did the Purtians consider Native Americans to be?
heathens - people without a faith
as early as 1622, the ____ tribe attacked colonial villages around James town and killed about __ settlers
Powhatan; 350
in 1675, _____ (also known as _____) led an attack on 52 colonial villages throughout Massachusetts
Metacom; King Philip
Millions of Native Americans died from...?
disease and warfare
beginning around 1500 European colonists began enaslaving Africans why?
to meet their great demand for large numbers of people to work as cheap labor
How did African rulers justify enslavement of non-Muslim prisoners of war could be bought and sold as slaves
with the Muslim belief that non-Muslim prisoners of war could be bought and sold as slaves
between 650 and 1600, black as well as white Muslims transported as many as _______ Africans mostly POWs and criminals to eh Muslim lands of SOuthwest Asia
4.8 million
In most African and Muslim societies what rights did slaves have?
they had some legal rights and opportunity for social mobility. They could even occupy positions of influence and power. In African societies, slaves could escape bondage by marrying into the family they served. The sons and daughters of slavers were considered free
Why did Europeans choose to use Africans to resupply their labor force?
1. many Africans had been exposed to various European diseases and had built up some immunity to them
2. many Africans had expereince in farming and could be taught large-scale plantation work
3. they were strangers to the Americans and had little knowledge of and land and no where to hide
What was the Atlantic slave trade?
the buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
by 1650, nearly ________ Africans labored throughtout Spanish America on _____ and in ____ and ____ mines
300,000; plantations, gold, silver
During the 17th century more than ____ percent of all Africans brought to the Americas went to Brazil
40
Who came to dominate the Atlantic slave trade.
England
Where did most European traders wait for African merchants, who would bring captured Africans to be enslaved
they would wait in prots along the western and eastern coasts of Africa
For what did the African merchants trade the captured Africans for with the Europeans?
gold, guns, and other goods
Who wrote a letter to the King of Portugal asking him to stop the slave trade?
King Nzinga Mbemba of Congo in west-central Africathe voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to N. and S. America
What was the middle passage?What was the triangular trade?
1. Europe
traded guns for slaves in
2. Africa
sold half of slaves for sugar in
3. Hispaniola
sold rest of slaves and other products in
4. North America
took furs, crops, and tobacco back to
1. Europe
How were captured Africans usually auctioned off?
to the highest bidder
After being sold, slaves worked in ____, _____, or __________
mines, fields, domestic servants
What was the Stono Rebellion? What was the aftermath?
Slaves were stolen from one area(Angola), they all spoke the same language and killed every white person (except Quakers).
after this, the Europeans decided not to take all their slaves from the same region ever again
What were the consequences of the slave trade in Africa?
they lost generations of their fittest members- their young and able. Firearms helped spread war and conflict throughout Africa
What were the consequences of the Atlantic Slave trade in the Americas?
slaves contributed to the economic and cultural development of the Americas, without them colonies such as Haiti and Barbados may not have survived. enslaved Africans also brought their expertise, esp. in agriculture. Also, it has affected the population of mixed-race people
What was the Columbian exchange?
the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
What was the Commercial Revolution?
a new wave of business and trade practices in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries
capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for profit
joint-stock company
involved a number of people pooling their wealth for a common purpose
Mercantilism
idea that a country's power depended mainly on it's wealth
Favorable balance of trade
when a country sold more goods than it bought
Where did Cortez land?
Tenochtitlan
2. Who was the leader of the Aztecs?
Montezuma
3. Who did they think that Cortez was? Why?
Quetzalcoatl
4. Why did Cortez do so that his soldiers would stay?
Burned all of his ships
5. What advantages did the Spaniards have over the Aztecs? What was they’re greatest advantage?
Horses, steel swords and armor, crossbows and light artillery. They’re greatest advantage was Dona Marina because she translated and advised Cortez. She told them that the Aztecs were hated by many Native American tribes
13. Who landed in Tampa Bay? Where did they end up? What happened to them?
Estevanico and Cabeza de Vaca.
They ended up in the present day city of Galveston, Texas. They were captured and enslaved by the Native Americans. They escaped however
14. Who explored the Mississippi?
De Soto
15. Who went as far as Kansas?
Coronado
6. Why are the Aztecs unable to chase down the Spaniards?
They were hit with an outbreak of smallpox
7. How long did Cortez stay away from Tenochtitlan? How long did it take for them to take over?
1 year. 85 days
8. Who landed on the coast of Peru?
Pizarro
9. Who was the Incan ruler at the time? How large was his army?
Atahualpa, 300,000
10. What did Atahualpa offer as his ransom?
A room full of gold and other treasures
11. What happened to Atahualpa? To Pizarro?
He was killed. He was murdered by his own soldier
12. Ponce de Leon was the governor of where?
Puerto Rico