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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why do languages change?
• Children acquiring a language do not always end up with exactly the same mental grammar as
their parents.
• Contact between languages, or between dialects of the same language, provides opportunities for
words or, less frequently, rules and structures to be borrowed from one to another.
• People use language to reinforce social identities—by talking more or less like someone else, one
can assert that one does or does not belong to the same group.
What are the different forms of sequential sound change?
Assimilation (Place/manner, Palatization/Affrication, Nasalization, Umlaut)

Weakening and deletion
Consonant strengthening
Glide strengthening
What are the different forms of weakening and deletion?
Vowels: Reduction, Syncope, Apocope.

Consonants: Degemination, Voicing, Frication, Rhotacism, Deletion.
Contrast syncope and apocope
Apocope is the deletion of a word-final vowel while syncope is the deletion of a word-internal vowel.
Order consonant types by strength.
voiceless stops
voiceless fricatives, voiced stops
voiced fricatives
What is rhotacism?
Weakening involving the change of [z] to [r], usually preceded by the voicing of [s] to [z].
Describe a type of segmental change.
Deaffrication turns affricates into fricatives by eliminating the stop portion of the affricate.
Describe a type of auditoryily based historical change.
Substitution replaces one segment with another similar-sounding segment.
What do we call words decended from a common source?
What are two phonological reconstruction strategies?
1) Phonetic Plausibility
2) Majority Rules
What does Grimm's law describe?
A series of consonant shifts that took place between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic
What is Verner's Law?
A voiceless fricative resulting from Grimm's Law underwent voicing if the original Proto-Indo-European accent did not immediately precede it.
Name three types of classification and contrast them.
Genetic classification categorizes languages according to their decent. Typological classification classies languages according to their structural characteristics. Areal classification identifies characterists shared by languages that are in geographical contact.
What are the three types of synthetic languages?
An aggutinating language has words that can contain several morphemes, but the words are easily divided into their component parts.

In fusional (inflectional) languages, the affixes often mark several grammatical categories simultaneously.

Mixed types contain both isolating, polysynthetic, agglutinating and fusional aspects.
List two ways of determining which variety is looked on as more standard?
Linguistic insecurity; matched guise test.
What are the main social characteristics that factor into language variation?
Geography, socioeconomics, social networks, gender, age, ethnicity.