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88 Cards in this Set

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Culture Production Systems (CPS)
A set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating or marketing a cultural product
3 major subsystems of CPS
1. creative subsystem- responsible for generating new symbols and products
2. managerial subsystem- ersponsible for selecting, mass producing, managing, and making tangible new symbols and products
communication subsystem- responsible for giving meaning to and providing symbolic attributes communicated to the consumer
Cultural gatekeepers
judges or tastemakers who filter overflow of info intended to consumers
Art Product vs. Craft Product
Art Product- object of aesthetic contemplation w/o functional value

Craft Object- an object that is beutiful in its functionality
High Art
Produced in a purely aesthetic context and judged against recognized classics
aesthetic market research
used to fine tune market offerings (Movie screenings, etc...)
reality engineering
elements or popular culture are appropriated by marketers and converted to vehicles for promotional strategies
product placement-
insertion of specific brands or products into movies or tv
innovations/diffusion of innovatiosn
Innovations- new products, brands, or ideas

Diffusion of innovations- process by which an innovation spreads throughout society
Stages of Adopting to an Innovation
1. Awareness
2. Information search
3. Evaluation
4. Trial
5. Adoption
6. Rejection
7. Discontinuence
How do adoption curves usually look?
S Shape!!!!!!
Innovators
2.5 perc. usually high tech and willing to take risks, not always opinion leaders, typically highly educated and high income
Early adopters
About the same as innovators, but not as willing to take risks. Highest level of opinion leaders
Early majority
deliberate some time before adopting, seldom hold leadership positions
late majority
skeptical about adopting, typically do so b/c of peer pressure or economic benefits
laggards
Traditional, distrusting of change, oriented towards teh past
General rule regarding innovations
The more novel an innovation, the less likely it is to be adopted.....people don't want to completely change their behaviors
3 types of innovation
Continuous innovation- modification of an existing product

Dynamically continuous innovation- more drastic innovation of an existing product

Discontinuous- major change in the way we live
5 characteristics influencing adoption of innovations
Compatibility- how it fits in with ones lifestyle

Complexity- how easy it is to understand

Triability- more likely to adapt if one can expirament before commiting

Observability- easy to see in society

Relative advantage- beneficial over alterantives
Fashion System
All of the people and organizations involved in creating symbolic meanings and transfering them to cultural goods
---affect what is in vogue
fashion is in context and undercoded
Same item is interpreted differently by different people and in different situations and there is not one precise meaning
Fashion
the process of social diffusion by which a new style is adopted by some group
"a Fashion" vs. "In fashion"
a fashion- a particular combonation of attributes
in fashion- the combo of attributes is positively evaluated by some reference group
Cultural Categories
meaning that gets imparted to products and which correspond to the basic ways we characterize the world
Collective Selection
process by which certain symbolic alternatives are selected over others
Psychological factors of fashion
(include shifting erogenous zones)
include conformity, variety seeking, personal creativity, and sexual attraction

--certain zones become object of interest as societal trends shift
Supply and demand model for fashion
the less the supply, the more in demand it is
conspicuous consumption
wealthy consume to display their prosperity
parody display
deliberate display of low-status products and stores
prestige-exclusivity effect
high prices mean high demand
snob effect
low prices equal low demand
trickle down effect
two forces combine to generate change in fashion: FIrst, groups are constantly trying to adapt the status symbols of groups above them
Second, the same groups are attempting to change when groups below them emulate them
Fashion acceptance cycle
Introduction- small number of innovators
Acceptance- incr. social visibiltiy and acceptance
Regression- social saturation
Classic vs. fad
Classic- extremely long product acceptance cycle
Fad- extremely short lived fashion
---typically serve little useful prupose, are quickly diffused and and impluse adoptions
Standardized Strategy
-Etic perspective
Adopting one strategy for multiple markets

--etic- stresses comonalities accross cultures
Emic perspective
Stresses differences accross cultures
National character
Each culture is unique with its own values, conventions, and regulations.
--products must be modified for local tastes
--attempts to explain a culture subjectively as experienced by insiders
Back translation
Translating an ad back into the original language by a different translator so as to catch errors
Creolization
Foreign influences are absorbed and integrated into local meanings
Why does global marketing fail?
Marketers fail to note how products are used in different countries and also fail to adapt to advertising practices (stresses on entertainment and regulation by govt.)
Reference Group
an actual or imaginary individual or group conceived as having significant relevance on an individual's evaluations, aspirations, or behavior
3 ways reference groups influence consumers
informational-observation of what experts do influences choice

utilitarian- desire to satisfy expectations of others

value-expressive-show others what one would like to be like
Aspirational vs. membership groups
Aspirational groups-idealized figures
Membership groups- consist of ordinary people who's consumption activities provide social influence
Positive vs. negative reference groups
have either a positive or negative influence on consumption behaviors......may desire to please or distance from them.
factors affecting liklihood of becoming a part of a consumer's reference group
propinquity- physical closeness to them

Mere-closeness- we like the things we are familiar with

Group cohesiveness- degree in which members value the group and their membership in it
Virtual communities
Online communities where individuals have never met face to face
Social Power
The ability to alter the actions of others
Referent Power
power to get consumers to change behaviors to please you
Information power
knowing something another desires to know
legitimate power
having power by virtue of social agreements
expert power
power due to specific knowledge over a content area
reward power
ability to provide positive reinforcement
coercive power
power due to ability to physically and socially intimidate
COnformity
change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group
Normative Social Influence
Help set and enforce fundemental standards of social conduct
cultural pressures affecting conformity
different cultures value conformity to a greater or lesser degree
fear of deviance
fear that sanctions will be applied to punish behavior that differs from a group
commitment
the mroe people dedicated to a group, the more motivated they will be to follow its dictates
principle of least interest
The person with the least interest in staying a a relationship has the most power
impact of group size and expertise on conformity
the bigger and smarter a group is, the more conformity there is
susceptibility to interpersonal influence
a person feels the need to increase their image in the opinion of significant others
Social Comparison Theory
People often look to others behaviors as a yardstick of reality.....a way of increasing the stability of ones self

Co-oriented peer- one on the same level as youa re
low-ball technique
getting a person to agree to something and then informing them it will be costly
door-in-the-face technique
asking for something extreme, and then asking to do something smaller
deindividuation
the process by which indicidual's identities become submerged in a group
social loafing
People tend to do less towards a task when in a group
risky shift
people tend to take more risks when a situation is evaluated by a group then individually
diffusion of responsibility
as mroe people are involved in a decision, and individuals responsibilty becomes less and less
value hypothesis
riskiness is valued by society and people are encouraged to conform to societal values
decision polarization
if people are leaning in one direction prior to group discussion, they are likely to be even more in extreme after it
Independence vs. anticonformity
independence-oblivious to the desires of others

anticonformity-definance of the group
Reactance
negative state resulting from losing ones freedom to choose
Guerrilla Marketing
Promotional strategies which ustilize unusal locations and intense word of mouth campaigns
Viral Marketing
Attempt to get consumers to positively talk about products
4 factors motivating product related convos
1. person may be highly involved and enjoy talking about it
2. person may be highly knowledgable and want to show it
3. person may have general concern for another
4. means of minimize uncertainty over a purchase
Rumor
as info is transmitted, it tends to be altered. The resulting message usually doesn't resemble the original
Assimilation/Leveling/Sharpening
Assimilation- changing somethign from ambigous to more conventional in an attempt to make sense of it

Sharpening- prominent details are accentuated

Leveling- leaving out details for simlicity
Opinion Leader(Def and characteristics)
person able to frequently influence the attitudes and behaviors of others

-share values of others, have expert knowledge, active in society.
Homophilous
Degree to which individuals are the same in terms of education, social status, beliefs
Monomorphic vs. polymorphic
mono- expert in a limited field
Ploy- expert in several fields
innovative communicators/innovators
innovators-early purchasers

innovative communicators- early purchasing opinion leaders
opinion seekers
highly involved in a product category....seek out info
market mavens
people who transmit market info of all types
surrogate consumers
consumers instrumental in influencing other's pruchasing decisions
self designated method of measuring opinion leaders
ask individual consumers whether they consuder themselves to be opinion leaders.......some may not say, some over inflate...and just b/c advice is transmitted doesn't mean it's used
key informants
asking certain group members who the key informants are.....success hinges on finding those with accurate knowledge and on minimizin bias...but it's easier to administer
sociometry
monitoring who each member of the group communicates with in an effort to find opinion leaders....extremely effective, but dificult and costly
Network Analysis (tie strength, strong tie, weak tie, and cliques)
analyzing the communication in a social group

tie strength- nature of bond b/t people
strong tie- communicate frequently and it is important
weak tie- communication a bridge function
clique- a sub group within a social group