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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When did the 13 colonies become revolutionary?
1763 with the French and Indian War and Common Sense
What percentage of colonists were revolutionary in 1776?
There was a large group of loyalists and also people who didn't care
What was the center of the Revolution?
The New England Colonies Especially Massachusetts
Why was Massachusetts Revolutionary?
• The Puritans owned Massachusetts and ran it as a puritan colony
o The Massachusetts lost their charter when Charles II returned to the throne
o Many Anglicans came to Massachusetts, Salem Witch Trials occurred, trying to get rid of the Anglicans
The Dominion of New England
The Colonies were forced to become unified under one governor and the king. They disliked this policy and didn't want to come together.
The Albany Congress
o The Albany Plan of Union
o Benjamin Franklin is the author
o Ben said that they knew that the French and Indians were going to band together to fight them, Ben said they must fight together in order to win
The Proclamation of 1763
 States that American colonists cannot settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
 King says that the colonists cannot farm there because they are leaving it for the Indians whom they just beat
The Stamp Act of 1765
 The Stamp Act Congress established a Boycott
 All 13 colonies become one team
 All areas were affected equally by the act
 The British Government backs down and repeals part of the act
• The fight was lost here
 No one is talking revolution
The Committees of Correspondence
 Responsible for sending news to other colonists about British acts
 They coined ‘massacre’ in response to fight in Boston
Boston Tea Party
o 1773
o The British get riled by the Boston Tea Party and other ‘tea parties’
British response to the Tea Parties
Coercive Acts
 The people of Boston are the only ones affected by the act
 They closed the Boston Port
 The other colonies are all of a sudden upset, they realize that if it could happen to Boston, it could happen to them
 They organize the First Continental Congress
First Continental Congress
o They saw it as more of a Coercive act congress
o They organized a boycott that was to go into affect in 1775
Second Continental Congress
o Olive Branch Petition
o Declaration of Necessity of Taking Up Arms
o The king ignores the petitions
o Declaration of Independence
 Thomas Jefferson
Articles of Confederation
o Written during the Revolution
o Weak, loose government, had very little power
o They were scared to have a powerful government because of the power the British had held
Failures of the Articles of Confederation
o We wanted to expand and the Spanish were opposed
 Mississippi river becomes the point of conflict
 Spanish shut down the Mississippi River to American Colonies
• Colonies can’t trade
o British are retaining the forts on the Mississippi and impressments
 British refuse to give the forts because they want the money they were owed as British colonies
o Shay’s Rebellion
 Farmers rise up about taxes
o We have threats and internal rebellion
o Chesapeake Bay
 Fights over the fish
 We needed an army, but there was none
Mt. Vernon Meeting
Meet at George Washington's house and settles the Cheasapeake Bay Issue.
Establishes the idea of the Colonies meeting together
The Annapolis Convention
o The meeting is set for Annapolis in 1787
o It was to fix the articles of confederation
o Most people don’t show up, only 5 out of 13
The Philadelphia Convention (The Constitutional Convention)
o 12 out of 13 show up
 Rhode Island doesn’t, they are small
o 55 men are present
 High class, educated, older, white, fat, nice clothes, powdered wigs
 Superior men
o It took them a day to decide that they needed to change the Articles of Confederation
The Virginia Plan
 James Madison
 Legislative branch
• Representative is based on population
• Bicameral
o Both based on population
 Executive Branch
• 1 president
• Voted by the legislative branch
 Parliamentary system
 Judicial Branch
• Chosen by congress
The New Jersey Plan
 William Patterson
 Legislative
• Equal representation
• 1 house
 Executive Branch
• Plural executives, more than one president
• Appointed by the legislative
 Judicial
• Same as Virginia Plan
Connecticut Compromise
 Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth
 Three branches
• Legislative
o Bicameral
o Equal rep (Senate) and population (House of Representation)
o Senate has more power
• Single Executive
o The electoral college elects the president
 Has as many members as the united states congress
• Judicial Branch
o Appointed by the president
o Approved by the Senate
• Checks and balances
Slave Compromise
Congress could not deal with the slavery issue for 20 years.
Slaves count as 3/5 of a person (south gets representations, north gets less taxes)
 John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison
• Wrote Federalist Papers
o Convincing people that Constitution should be ratified
o Pros of the strong central government
 Against the strong national government
• Bill of Rights are given to guarantee personal freedoms
 There is no mention of God in the Constitution
 Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Richard Henry Lee
Bill of Rights
1st 10 amendments
Added at the first Constitutional convention
How can the Constitution be amended?
2/3 of Congress
3/4 of states must approve