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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
representation
the efforts of elected officials to look out for the interests of those who elect them.
constituency
the voters in a state or district.
policy representation
congressional work to advance the issues and ideological preferences of constituents.
allocative representation
congressional work to secure projects, services, and funds for the represented district.
pork barrel
public works projects and grants for specific districts paid for by general revenues.
casework
legislative work on behalf of individual constituents to solve their problems with government agencies and programs.
symbolic representation
the efforts of members of Congress to stand for American ideals or to identify with common constituency values.
lawmaking
the creation of policy to address national problems.
bicameral legislature
a legislature with two chambers.
reapportionment
a reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census.
malapportionment
the unequal distribution of population among districts.
redistricting
the process of dividing the states into legislative districts.
gerrymandering
redistricting to benefit a particular group.
racial gerrymandering
redistricting to enhance or reduce the chances that a racial or ethnic group will elect members to the legislature.
franking
the privilege of free mail service provided to members of Congress.
strategic politician
an office seeker who bases the decision to run on a rational calculation that he or she will be successful.
incumbency advantage
the electoral edge afforded to those already in office.
coattail effect
the added votes received by congressional candidates of a winning presidential party.
midterm loss
the tendency for the presidential party to lose congressional seats in off-year elections.
majority party
the party with the most seats in a house of Congress.
Speaker of the House
the leader of the majority party, who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives.
party caucuses
party groupings in each legislative chamber.
seniority system
the accumulation of power and authority in conjunction with the length of time spent in office.
legislative oversight
a committee's investigation of government agencies to ensure they are acting as Congress intends.
standing committee
a permanent committee responsible for legislation in a particular policy area.
House Rules Committee
the committee that determines how and when debate on a bill will take place.
select committee
a committee appointed to deal with an issue or problem not suited to a standing committee.
joint committee
a combined House-Senate committee formed to coordinate activities and expedite legislation in a certain area.
conference committee
a temporary committee formed to reconcile difference in the House and Senate versions of a bill
norms
informal rules that govern behavior in Congress.
legislative agenda
the state of proposals and issues that representatives think it worthwhile to consider and act on.
policy entrepreneurship
the practice of legislators becoming experts and taking leadership roles in specific policy areas.
fillibuster
the practice of unlimited debate in the Senate to prevent or delay a vote on a bill.
cloture
a vote to end a Senate filibuster; requires a three-fifths majority , or sixty votes.
veto override
the reversal of a presidential veto by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress.
line-item veto
presidential authority to strike out individual spending provisions in a budget; passed by Congress but ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
pocket veto
presidential authority to kill a bill submitted within ten days of the end of a legislative session by not signing it.
roll call voting
publicly recorded votes on bills and amendments on the floor of the House or Senate.