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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 most common heart defects in order from most to least common?
VSD (Ventricular Septal Defect), ASD (atrial septal defect), PDA (patent ductus arteriosus)
What characterizes an acynotic heart defect?
No abnormal communication.
What characterizes a cynotic heart defect?
Permanent right to left shunt (right side non oxygenated blood)
What characterizes cyonotic Tartive?
Start acyanoitic and becomes cyanotic.
What diseases are characterized by an initial left-to-right shunt?
What diseases are characterized by a right to left shunt?
Teratology of falot.
What diseases are characterized by No shunt?
Transposition of great vessels, Coartaction of aorta, pulmonary stenosis, aortic stenosis.
What is a ventricular septal defect?
An abnormal opening in the ventricular septum that occurs as an isolated lesion or in combination with other congenital heart anomalies.
What fails to form in VSD?
Interventricular septum.
What is the most common type of VSD?
Membranous not muscular.
What will infants with a large VSD present with?
Congestive heart failure and a harsh holosystolic murmur heard at the left sternal border.
What is ASD? What causes it?
An opening in the atrial septum caused by excessive resorption around the foramen secundum or hypoplastic growth of septum secundum.
What is the most common site of ASD?
Mid portion of the interatrial septum, in the region of the fossa ovale, called ostium secundum ASD.
What are the 3 types of ASD?
Ostium secundum defect, Ostium premium defect, sinus venosus defect.
What do infants with ASD present with?
Most are asymptomatic but can detect a murmor and develope systolic impulse alnog left sternal border and palpatations.
What is PDA?
Ductus arterious fails to close after birth.
When will PDA be life saving?
IF there is also transposition of great arteries.
What is PDA frequently associated with?
Maternal rubella infection.
What is the most common finding of PDAs?
Continuous murmor heard at upper left sternal border. Murmur heard throughout cardiac cycle.
What is coarctation of the aorta?
Narowing of the aortic lumen, can occur anywhere along its length.
What does preductal coarctation result in? When does it arise?
Hypopalastic development of aorta. During fetal life.
When does postductal coarctation arise?
What is the cause of postductal coarctation?
Muscular ductal tissue extending into the aorta during fetal life, which constricts upon birth.
What is the anomalous physical findings in aortic coarctation?
Hypertension in upper body (only if after the takeoff of the left subclavian), blood flow in lower extremities deminished.
What symptoms occur in preductal coarctation?
Congestive heart failure shortly after birth, cyanosis if ductus remains open (upper half oxgyen, lower half cyanotic.)
What occurs in postductal type coarctation?
Congestive heart failure, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, and hepatomegaly.
What is the cause of the teratology of fallot?
An abnormal anterosuperior and righward displacement of the infundibular septum resulting in unequal devision of the bulbus cordis into pulmonary and aortic outflow tracts.
What four anomalies are associated with teratology of fallot?
Ventricular septal defect due to septum misalignment
Subvalvular pulmonic stenosis because of obstruction of the infundibular septum
An overidding aorta that recieves blood from both ventricles.
Right ventricular hypertrophy due to the high pressure load of the pulmonic stenosis.
What are the symptomis of Tetralogy of Fallot?
Dyspnea, spells, squatting, Cynosis, Systolic murmur at left upper sternal border.
What is transposition of the great arteries?
Present when the great vessels inappropriately arise from the opposite ventricle.
What is the cause of TGA?
Failure of the aoticopulmonary septum to spiral in a normal fashion during heart development or abnormal growth and absorption of the subpulmonary and the subaortic infundibuli during the division of truncus arteriosus.
What are the symptoms of TGA?
Closure of ductus and forament ovale results in death. Cyanosis is usually apparent on the first day of life progressing rapidly as the ductus closes.
What causes PTA?
A result of absent or incomplete partitioning of the truncus arteriosus by the spiral septum, thus leaving a common trunk for the origin of the aorta, pulmonary arteries and coronary arteries.
What occurs in type 1 PTA?
A single trunk gives rise to a common pulmonary artery and descending aorta.
What are the symptoms of PTA?
Heart failure, recurrent respiratory tract infections, death, little or no cyanosis, clubbing of fingers.